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STUDY GUIDE for C475 Care of Older Adult Objective Assessment
Exam questions are taken from the Learning Objectives under the 9 Competencies:
#1 Competency 742.1.1: Compassionate and Respectful Care of Older Adults
The graduate integrates principles of compassion and respect for patients and the ir families into the planning and delivery of care to a diverse population of older adults and into advocacy for vulnerable older adults.
This topic addresses the following learning objectives:
Recognize the impact of attitudes, values, and expectations about aging.
Describe how the RN’s personal beliefs and values may impact the care of older adults.
Articulate the concept of individualized care as the standard of practice with older adults, considering the right care, at the right time, in the right place and by the right provider of care.
Define Baby Boomers
Those born between 1946-1964; that are now reaching retirement age
What are the five racial groups listed in your text?
European Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans
How would you perform discharge teaching to an Hispanic patient
Whittemore (2007) conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify culturally competent interventions for Hispanic adults with type 2 diabetes. In reviewing 11 studies, Whittemore found that providing educational sessions and written materials, in both English and Spanish; employing bilingual Hispanic staff; including family members in an informal atmosphere in health care encounters; incorporating cultural traditions in interventions; developing culturally relevant program literature; and providing fact sheets about risk and potential poor outcomes of chronic conditions such as diabetes will increase the effectiveness of interventions.
Apply effective and respectful communication strategies in the care of older adults and the ir families.
List some of the changes of aging that could affect the rapeutic communication
Physical: like aphasia (difficulty finding words, writing, expression), dysarthria (difficult speaking)
Psychological: Dementia, Mental disease, schizophrenia, depression,
embarrassment (hearing loss, vision loss), English as a second language (cannot understand or relay message) , fear of being labeled as a complainer
Eyes: Senile miosis, difficulty adjusting to bright lights, presbyopia
(accomodating near to far), decrease in acuity or depth perception, dry eyes
Ears: conduction problems, tumors, infections, foreign objects, noise
pollution (hx playing in band), otoxic substances, freq, presbycuspis most common **
Note the ways to communicate or assist a patient with disabilities such as
hearing deficits, vision impairments, or aphasia and dysarthria. How should you address the older adult during the rapeutic communication?
Disabilities in general: Slow down, allow time for reaction, set up
environment, gathe r supplies ahead of time, tell family members to answer only when directed, introduce your name and role, eliminate background noise (turn off tv if too loud), determine how the pt likes to be addressed (never use honey or dear), extend your hand and shake and smile, maintain eye contact, do not talk down, avoid crossing arms, do not minimize the ir concerns
Hearing loss: Do not use a high pitch voice or shout, stand in front of
the m, Sit at the side the y hear best, Do not cover your face, Eliminate background noise
Visual loss: Do not startle, position yourself, provide ample lighting, be
prepared if the patient states the y see objects that you do not.
Language impairment: use short, uncomplicated sentences, maintain eye contact, provide an environment low in distractions, observe facial cues, paper and pen, do not correct what the y say.
Know the abbreviations or acronyms, such as AAC. Know which hearing aids
cover the widest range of hearing loss. See the box on Types of Hearing Aids in chapter 5. Both hearing aids and AAC will be mentioned again in Chapter 16.
-AAC ‘augmented and alternative communication’, is an integrated group
of components, including symbols, aids, strategies and techniques used by individuals to enhance communication.
-BTE (behind the ear) is the most common and covers the widest range of
hearing loss assistive device.
Make sure you understand what patients could benefit from the use of the AAC.
Understand what things can occur to make it difficult to communicate
Any barriers listed above, embarrassment, isolation, etc.
Which type of hearing aid covers the entire range of hearing loss? Behind the ear, functions on battery, easy to use.
What factors in a diverse aging population affect communication?
Support individual health goals that range from healthy activities to simply achieving comfort.
Illustrate compassionate and individualized care for older adults with chronic illness that reduces symptom burden and seeks to preserve quality of life.
#2 Competency 742.1.2: Health Promotion/Maintenance and Living Environments of Older Adults
The graduate evaluates the older adults' life world with special awareness of the diversity among the health status of older adults, individualizing care according to the physical, mental/cognitive, functional, and psycho-social well-being of an elder patient, along with support systems in place. *You will notice that Competencies two through five overlap one anothe r. Some of the information for one topic may be found in anothe r topic or anothe r competency. Don’t become frustrated. It will all come togethe r.
This topic addresses the following learning objectives:
Identify functional and physical changes in the aging adult that would necessitate changes to the living environment.
Identify cognitive, psychological, and social changes common to the aging adult that would necessitate changes to the living environment.
Recognize steps to mitigate common physical safety issues.
Analyze the living environment of a given older adult with special awareness of the functional, physical, cognitive, psychological, and social changes of aging.
What are the five A’s to tobacco cessation?
What are the Five R’s to tobacco cessation?
The 5 As
Ask about smoking status at each health care visit.
Advise client to quit smoking.
Assess client’s willingness to quit smoking at this time.
Assist client to quit using counseling and pharmacothe rapy.
Arrange for follow-up within one week of scheduled quit date.
The 5 Rs
ü Relevance: Ask the client to think about why quitting may be personally relevant for him or her.
ü Risks of smoking are identified by the client.
ü Rewards of quitting are identified by the client.
ü Roadblocks or barriers to quitting are identified by the client.
ü Repetition of this process at every clinic visit. Most people who successfully quit smoking require multiple attempts.
Ø What is the criterion for the pneumococcal vaccine?
ü Pneumococcal vaccine is given once for clients who are 65 years of age or older. The re is evidence to support one-time-only revaccination for clients 75 years or older who have not been vaccinated in 5 or more years.
Ø In most cases of elder abuse who is the perpetrator?
ü Most cases of elder abuse are perpetrated by a family member, and reasons for the abuse include caregiver burnout and stress, financial worries, transgenerational violence, and psychopathology in the abuser. Women and dependent elders tend to be the most vulnerable to abuse.
Ø What 5 areas do Healthy People 2010 and the USPSTF suggest that nurses focus
on to promote health & prevent disability in the older adult? (see page 356 in text)
ü Physical activity
ü Tobacco use
Ø Describe the difference between ADLs and IADLs (instrumental activities of daily living)
ü ADL: Include bathing, dressing, grooming, showering, and toileting
ü IADL: Activities related to independent living; the y include meal preparation, money management, shopping, housework, and using a telephone.
ü Tools of ADL/IADL can be used to determine functional ability of a pt and
how much the y need to depend on othe rs to live alone or with some assistance.
Ø List the nutritional assessment tests to determine risk for diet-related chronic
illness (see text page 359)
ü DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist: A tool created by the Nutrition Screening Initiative, a collaborative project of health, medical, and aging organizations. The nutrition checklist can be ordered from the initiative’s Web site for a nominal fee.
ü • Serum albumin: Less than 3.5 g/dl is associated with malnutrition and
increased morbidity and mortality.
ü • Body mass index (BMI): The Nutrition Screening Initiative suggests that a BMI of 22–27 is considered normal. Values above or below this range suggest over- and underweight, respectively. Unintended weight loss is a nutritional risk that requires additional assessment. Obesity is a problem for many older Americans, just as it is for younger adults. The Obesity Education Initiative of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (2005) has provider guidelines and patient education materials
ü • Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) Cholesterol Guidelines: An unintended
decrease in cholesterol to less than 150 mg/dl is a nutritional risk
ü • ADL and IADL measures: The se can assess a client’s ability to eat and prepare food and to do the shopping and transportation necessary for good nutrition.
ü • Dietary Reference Intakes and Recommended Daily Allowances: The se
can be compared with food diaries from a 24- to 48-hour period to assess marked deviation from the se guidelines. Clients who use many vitamin and nutritional supplements may be at risk for toxicities.
ü • Depression and dementia: Both are risk factors for nutritional
Ø Review the USPSTF Screening Recommendations for Older Adults, Table 12-1 on page 376 in text.
§ Annual flu vaccine
§ Pneumococcal vaccine once after age 65 and onetime revaccination for clients over age 75 who’ve not been vaccinated in 5 years
§ Td vaccine every 10 years
Ø Review the I HATE FALLING risk assessment tool, Box 12-4 on page 361. What can the nurse recommend to reduce risk of falling?
ü Inflammation of joints or joint deformity
ü Hypotension (orthostatic blood pressure change)
ü Auditory and visual abnormalities
ü Equilibrium problems
ü Foot problems
ü Arrhythmias, heart block, valvular disease
ü Leg-length discrepancy
ü Lack of conditioning (generalized weakness)
ü Nutrition (poor, weight loss)
ü Gait disturbance
Ø Balance and strengthe ning exercises, home safety modifications, and elimination of high-risk medications have been the focus of fall-risk prevention strategies.
The re are strong data to support the effectiveness of balance and strengthe ning exercises for fall reduction, as well as research to support physiologic and environmental risk factor reduction. PREVENTION is key.
#3 Competency 742.1.3: Health Needs of Older Adults
The graduate effectively collaborates with patients, families and inter-professional team members in planning primary, secondary, tertiary and end-of-life care that addresses older adults' physical, mental, psychosocial and spiritual needs and preferences and responses to changes in health status and related treatments.
This topic addresses the following learning objectives:
· Identify how the physiological changes of aging affect the organs involved in absorption and excretion of medications
· Recognize functional changes and mobility issues that may threaten independence in the older adult.
· Identify factors that may contribute to alterations in nutrition, metabolism, and elimination in older adults.
· Recognize the signs and symptoms of geriatric syndromes and the subsequent frailty that may result.
· Apply knowledge of the aging process and associated risk factors; skills in history-taking and assessment; and respect for the dignity of older adults in a comprehensive, individualized assessment.
· Identify and use valid and reliable standardized tools of functional assessment in older adults.
· Identify and use valid and reliable standardized tools of cognitive assessment in older adults.
· Observe for risks or thepresence of thefive most common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, incontinence, falls, functional decline, and delirium, including hypokinetic delirium).
· Compare specified theories of aging, including thegenetic theory.
· Describe how to use evidence-based assessment tools and methods to conduct a comprehensive assessment of an older adult.
· Promote quality outcomes through theapplication of evidence-based practices specific to thecare needs of older adults.
· Promote evidence-based practice by utilizing theBeer list of potentially unsafe medications for theelderly.
· Contribute to interdisciplinary plans of care to promote health, reduce risk, and prevent disease in older adults.
· Contribute to interdisciplinary care plans that address common acute and chronic health conditions, such as arthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases that may lead to congestive heart failure, and dementia.
· Consider potential drug side effects in assessing adverse symptoms in older adults.
Ø There are three types of assessments: Physical, Cognitive and Functional.
ü Physical assessment is assessing thepatient’s physical health. It included vital signs, assessing for pain, blood pressure problems, irregular heartbeat, abnormal breath sounds, etc. you know these because as a nurse you are always assessing thepatient. In addition, for older adults you want to assess cognitive function.
ü Functional assessment is assessing what theolder adult can still for
themselves. Bathing, eating, getting dress, brushing their teeth and more are functional abilities. Functional abilities can be altered due to physical impairment and illness. Dr. Katz and Dr. Barthel developed ADL/IADL indexes to measure thepatients functional abilities. You should have noticed that ADL is used throughout thebook. This is because theADL's can determine thepatient's care plan. It determines whether they are safe in thecurrent environment. It impacts their ability to participate in health promotion and disease prevention.
ü Cognitive- thought processing, thinking and reasoning skills. Know the
normal cognitive changes as a result of aging. Dementia is not normal. You will need to understand thedifference between delirium & dementia.
§ Delirium: Acute
§ Dementia: Chronic
Ø There are special tools to assess theolder adult that have been proven to produce accurate results. You must be familiar with those tools specific for theolder adult. Theexam will use theacronyms for thetools. For example, CAM, MMSE, CDT, SPICES. Make sure you know what these stand for and can answer when they are to be used or what theresults of these assessment tools will tell you.
o CAM- confusion assessment method – to assess for delirium.
o MMSE- mini mental state examination—to assess cognitive function. (Themost extensively used cognitive assessment tool***)
o CDT- clock drawing test—used during themini cog (draw a clock and request a certain time)
o SPICES- an overall assessment tool for older adults (Sleeping, Problems with eating and sleeping, incontinence, Confusion, Evidence of falls, and skin breakdown)
Ø Be familiar with thepain assessment tools, and how unrelieved pain can lead to
Ø Know Katz Index of ADL and Barthel Index both are in chapter 7. You will see ADL and IADL throughout therest of theentire book.
o Katz: distinguished between independence and dependence in activities and
created an ordered relationship among ADLs. It addressed theneed for assistance in bathing, eating, dressing, transfer, toileting, and continence. Uses a scoring 0 for dependent and 1 for independent and helps with discharge and POC.
o Barthel: This index was designed to measure functional levels of self-care and
mobility, and it rates theability to feed and groom oneself, bathe, go to thetoilet, walk (or propel a wheelchair), climb stairs, and control bowel and bladder
Ø TheMini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is themost extensively used cognitive
assessment tool (page 246): TheMMSE was originally developed to differentiate organic from functional disorders and to measure change in cognitive impairment, but it was not intended to be used as a diagnostic tool. It measures orientation, registration, attention and calculation, short-term recall, language, and visuospatial function.
Ø TheMini-Cog can be done in 5 minutes see also www.consultgerirn.org.
Ø They may also mention CDT (Clock Drawing Test) which is commonly done with theMini- Cog evaluation.
Ø You have to know thephysiological changes that occur which make theolder adult more susceptible to adverse drug reactions.
o Age-related alterations in drug distribution, hepatic metabolism, and renal clearance all play a significant role in thechances of an elderly patient developing
an ADR. ADRs in elderly patients may decrease functional status, increase health services use, and in some rare cases have resulted in death
ü Five Rights of Medication Administration
§ Right Drug, Right Route, Right Dose, Right patient, Right time.
ü Themost common drugs that alter lab results:
§ Drugs commonly used by theelderly may alter laboratory results.
Isoniazid, levodopa, morphine, vitamin C, and penicillin G may lead to false-positive urine glucose results. Levodopa may produce an increase in serum bilirubin and uric acid
ü Polypharmacy- why is theolder adult more apt to polypharmacy:
§ Many older patients are prescribed multiple drugs, take over-the- counter medications, and are often prescribed additional drugs to treat theside effects of themedications that they are already taking. Also, demented patients may not be aware of why they are taking a medication and may take an OTC that will have thesame effect.
ü Beers’ List of Inappropriate drugs for Older Adults- this is in thee-text and www.consultgerirn.org. Make sure you are familiar with this.
Benzodiazepines are mentioned quite a bit.
§ Questions to Ask to Avoid Inappropriate Prescribing for Elderly Patients:
§ Is thetreatment necessary?
§ Is this thesafest drug available?
§ Is this themost appropriate dose, route of administration, and dosage form?
§ Is thefrequency appropriate?
§ Do thebenefits outweigh this risk?
§ Darvon, Darvocet
§ Antichol’s (Amitryptline)
§ Barbituates, Benzo’s
§ Nifedipine (Procardia)
§ Flexeril, oxybutynin
Ø MAP- this means medication assistance program and it will be mentioned in a later chapter. Make sure you understand what it is. This is a choice you can offer your patient who cannot pay for their medication.
Ø You want to advise your patients to become very familiar with their pharmacist. Only use one pharmacy for all their medications, including over thecounter (OTC) and herbal remedies. Thepharmacist can alert thepatient to potential drug reactions.
Ø Know thecommon classes cause ADR: antipsychotics, antihistamines, benzodiazepine
(Atarax, restoril, florazepam, diazepam, Librium, Xanax, Restyl, Paxil), Muscle relaxants, anti-anxiety drugs, anti-convulsants, antiemetics, analgesics
#4 Competency 742.1.4: Promoting Independence and Autonomy While Reducing Risk Factors in Older Adults
Thegraduate recommends techniques to co-create health and illness management practices with older adults and their families (caregivers) that ensure safety and optimal maintenance of functional ability, taking into account patient characteristics and needs and patient and caregiver vulnerabilities as well as strengths.
This topic addresses thefollowing learning objectives:
· Identify ethical principles for preserving autonomy while reducing risk in thecare of older adults.
· Describe strategies for preventing morbidity and mortality associated with theuse of physical and chemical restraints in older adults.
· Determine appropriate best practices to co-create a plan of care with thepatient, family and other caregivers.
· Explain how you would assist older adults, families, and caregivers to balance theneed for autonomy and safety when making everyday decisions.
· Apply ethical and legal principles to thecomplex issues that arise in thecare of older adults.
· Identify appropriate principles of care commensurate with older adults' vulnerabilities and thefrequency and intensity of care needs.
· Assess theeffectiveness of various steps taken to assist health professionals in recognizing and reporting suspected mistreatment of older adults or abuse of resources.
· Recommend appropriate individualized care practices to eliminate theuse of physical and chemical restraints in older adults.
· Recommend techniques to create health practices of a given older adult and family to address identified patient vulnerabilities.
Ø Define autonomy and self-determination.
o Autonomy is theconcept that each person has a right to make independent choices and decisions. It is reflected in guidelines and laws regarding patient rights and self-determination. Inherent in theconcept of autonomy is respect for another and their decisions and that each person should be treated with dignity as a unique individual with inherent worth.
o Self-determination: Theright of thepatient to make a choice about their outcomes and abilities.
Ø What is frailty? What are thecharacteristics?
o Frailty is perceived as a general decline in thephysical function of older adults that can increase vulnerability to illness and decline. Defining characteristics include unintentional weight loss of more than 10% in theprior year, feelings of exhaustion, grip strength in theweakest 20% for age, walking speed in thelowest 20% for age, and low caloric expenditure (<270 kcal) per week on physical activity. Neither age nor disability alone makes a person frail, but changes that often occur with age may contribute significantly to its presence. At nearly every age past 65, women commonly experience frailty at a greater percentage than men
Ø What is theKohlman Evaluation of Living Skills (KELS)?
o KELS- which has been adapted for thegeriatric population and is commonly administered by occupational therapists. It assesses 17 daily living skills under five categories—self-care, safety and health, money management, transportation and telephone use, and work and leisure.
Ø What are thefactors that influence thequality of life of an older adult?
o Quality of life is a perception based on personal values and beliefs. Views on quality of life are widely variable and likely to change when circumstances differ. They are influenced by emotional, physical, economic, and social needs. Some quality-of-life decisions are made in direct relation to theburden being placed on others. Sometimes it is not thebig things such as limitations in mobility that cause thegreatest burden on quality of life, but rather theindignity and emotional burden associated with problems such as incontinence and dependency.
Ø What is theone of themost common role changes faced by theaging person? List all.
o Retirement is themost common but also, health transitions (healthy to ill), loss of spouse, and role reversal (as parent to child), and not driving a car.
Ø What is role reversal for theolder adult?
o Role reversal with a spouse or adult children often occurs for theaging person, as theelder moves from care provider to care recipient through thecourse of aging. When a very strong and independent elder experiences failing health, thetransition to dependency may drain theenergies of both theprovider and therecipient who are part of therole reversal
Ø List and describe thecare options for theolder adult?
o • Independent living with help: Cooks, companions, homemaker/cleaning service
—formal or informal.
o • Family: Usually informal; may live in patient’s or family member’s home.
o • Adult daycare at a facility: Part-time temporary assistance, frequently for respite or while a family caregiver works; often used for persons with dementia or for thefrail elderly needing assistance or at risk for social isolation. Usual discharge is to assisted living or death.
o • Adult daycare at home: Part-time respite, as above.
o • Senior living complexes/continuing care/supported care retirement communities: Full range or limited services, depending on thecommunity and level of assistance needed; can be progressive as needs increase.
o • Assisted living: Homelike setting with more physical and medical care available than in senior complexes.
o • Paid caregiver homes (licensed or unlicensed): Caregivers accept one or several nonrelatives into their home to receive 24-hour assistance, especially with BADLs, usually on a private-pay basis. In some states, public subsidies may cover adult group/foster home care.
o • Extended care facilities: Skilled or intermediate care nursing home facilities for rehabilitation or ongoing care; can be paid by Medicare, Medicaid, or private pay, depending on financial resources. Preadmission screening is usually required by thestate regulatory agency.
Ø What is theBorg Category Rating Scale?
o Allows persons to rate their own level of activity and and target their desired level of exercise. (6 being very light and 20 being very heavy)
Ø What are thecommon signs of abuse in an older adult and who is mostly to be theabuser?
o Most cases of elder abuse are perpetrated by a family member, and reasons for theabuse include caregiver burnout and stress, financial worries, transgenerational violence, and psychopathology in theabuser.
o Signs of abuse:
Ø • Thepresence of several injuries in different stages of repair
Ø • Delays in seeking treatment
Ø • Injuries that cannot be explained or that are inconsistent with theclient’s history
Ø • Contradictory explanations by thecaregiver and thepatient
Ø • Bruises, burns, welts, lacerations, or restraint marks
Ø • Dehydration, malnutrition, decubitus ulcers, or poor hygiene
Ø • Depression, withdrawal, or agitation
Ø • Signs of medication misuse
Ø • A pattern of missed or cancelled appointments
Ø • Frequent changes in health care providers
Ø • Discharge, bleeding, or pain in therectum or vagina or a sexually transmitted disease
Ø • Missing prosthetic device(s), such as dentures, glasses, or hearing
Ø List common tools used to assess abuse in theolder adult?
o TheHwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) and theVulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale
Ø Describe theFramingham Heart Study. What did it look at and what were thefindings?
o This study began with over 5,000 male and female subjects about 50 years ago in order to study cardiovascular risk factors. As a result of decades of epidemiologic work, thefollowing risk factors have been identified:
Ø • Age greater than or equal to 50 for men and 60 for women
Ø • Hypertension
Ø • Smoking
Ø • Obesity
Ø • Family history of premature CHD
Ø • Diabetes (considered to be a CHD risk-equivalent, i.e., carries thesame risk of a coronary event as known CHD)
Ø • Sedentary lifestyle
Ø • Abnormal lipid levels
Ø What are therisk factors for stroke? Describe thestatistical data in regards to strokes and theolder adult.
o increased age, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes. Clients with coronary artery disease are at increased risk for stroke because atherosclerotic vessel disease is a common etiology for thetwo diseases. Also, heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and a high-fat diet. In addition to these risk factors, atrial fibrillation and asymptomatic carotid stenosis place clients at high risk for cerebrovascular disease.
o It is estimated that 36% of strokes suffered by clients 80–89 years of age are as a result of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation
Ø What are other disease processes theolder adult is at risk for? Explain theprevalence
and how to prevent or control theillness
o Thyroid Disease: Overt disease affects 5% of American adults, but theprevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] with normal levels of thyroid hormone) is 17.4% among women older than age 75 and 6.2% among men over age 65. Thetask force recommends that clinicians be cognizant of thesigns and symptoms of thyroid disease, and test symptomatic patients; evidence is lacking to justify screening of asymptomatic patients, however.
o Osteoporosis is common in theelderly and is correlated with fracture risk. There are good screening tests to diagnose osteoporosis and effective treatments for thedisease
o Theprevalence of hearing and visual impairment increases with age and has been correlated with social and emotional isolation, clinical depression, and functional impairment. An objective hearing loss can be identified in over one- third of persons age 65 years or older and in up to half of patients age 85 years or older.
o Breast cancer is themost common cancer among U.S. women, and theprevalence of thedisease increases with age. According to theCDC (2008), 3–4% of women who are 60 years old today will get breast cancer by theage of 70. Both clinical and self breast examinations are rec’m.
o Prostate cancer is both thesecond most common form of cancer among U.S. men and thesecond leading cause of cancer death in U.S. men. Two tests are commonly used in prostate cancer screening: thedigital rectal exam (DRE) and theprostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test.
o Colorectal cancer is both thethird most common cancer in theUnited States and thethird leading cause of cancer death in theUnited States. Theprevalence of thedisease increases with age, and over 90% of colorectal cancer is diagnosed in clients over theage of 50. Colonoscopy rec’m over theage of 50.
Ø Instruct thepatient to obtain all medications (prescription and nonprescription) at one
pharmacy so that pharmacists can check for potentially dangerous interactions. Thepharmacist can serve as thecentral figure who maintains a list of medications and screens for drug-drug interactions to avoid harmful situations.
#5 Competency 742.1.5: Promoting Health and Independence in Older Adults.
Thegraduate selects appropriate evidence-based standards of health promotion, risk reduction, and disease prevention in older adult populations.
This topic addresses thefollowing learning objectives:
· Explain how to facilitate older adults' active engagement and participation in their own healthcare.
· After discussing evidence-based health promotion activities, facilitate thedevelopment of health promotion goals with a given older adult.
· Analyze evidence-based research regarding risk reduction and disease prevention in older adults.
· Describe strategies to enhance thephysical and mental function of older adults.
· Identify common risk factors that contribute to functional decline in older adults.
· Identify theprinciples for improving functional ability and quality of life for theolder adult.
· Articulate psychosocial interventions for maximizing a given older adult’s quality of life.
Ø What is thedefinition of a fall?
o An event which results in a person unintentionally coming to rest on theground or another lower level; not as a result of a major intrinsic event (such as a stroke) or overwhelming hazard.
Ø And what can happen to an older adult after a fall?
o Falls can result in injury, loss of independence, reduced quality of life, and death in theelderly. Fractures are themost serious health consequence of falls.
Ø What are therisks for falls? (Past history of falls is a major risk factor!)
o Previous falls, medications, cognitive impairment, dizziness/syncope history, heart related changes (hypotension, arrhythmias), confusion.
Ø What are intrinsic risk factors?
o Intrinsic risk factors relate to thechanges associated with aging and with disorders of physical functions needed to maintain balance. These functions include vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual function, as well as cognition and musculoskeletal function. Elderly persons who fall in institutions are usually more physically and/or cognitively impaired, and therefore intrinsic factors contribute most to falls and fall-related injuries.
Ø What are extrinsic risk factors?
o Extrinsic risk factors are related to environmental hazards and challenges such as poor lighting, stairs, clutter, and throw rugs. Extrinsic factors are implicated in up to 50% of all falls in theelderly in community settings.
Ø Among older adults living in thecommunity, when and where do most falls occur?
o Among theelderly living in thecommunity, most falls occur during usual activities such as walking. Indoor falls occur most often in thebathroom, bedroom, and kitchen.
o In institutions, themost common sites of falls are thebedside (during transfers into or out of bed) and thebathroom
Ø What can you do to prevent falls?
o ASSESS. Most tools contain a fall history, an examination of mental and mobility status, a checklist for thepresence of sensory deficits, a list of medications theclient is receiving, and a list of primary and secondary diagnoses.
o In theinpatient setting, orientation to theenvironment with an emphasis on safety devices is thefirst step in preventing falls. Other strategies include nonskid slippers or shoes, hip protectors, removal of obstacles and clutter, having thecommode close to thebed, having thecall light within easy access, and encouraging use of glasses and hearing aids. Theavoidance of physical restraints, such as raised side rails, and maintaining thebed in thelowest position are essential in reducing theseverity of falls.
Ø What are thetypes of restraints used? Physical (waist restraint, wrist restraint, geriatric chair) and chemical (benzo’s, anti-psych’s)
Ø What are theeffects of restraint use on theelderly? Increases risk for falls, higher
risk for problems associated with immobility such as pressure ulcers, contractures, and confusion. Many elderly experience feelings of anger, fear, humiliation, discomfort, demoralization, and punishment when they are restrained.
Ø What are alternatives techniques (instead of restraints) to deal with wandering,
combative or confused patients?
o Distraction, using a family member, moving a patient closer to thenurses station, magazines and newspaper, sitter, restraint alternatives (lap table that can be removed, etc.), bed alarms, soothing music/relaxation, regular attention to personal needs, removal of obstacles/safer physical design, use of personal assistive devices like hearing aids, glasses.
Ø Identify ways to promote healthy living among theelderly
o • Maintain a healthy weight and diet.
o • Stay active.
o • Practice fall prevention.
o • Make connections—maintain relationships with others.
o • See medical personnel regularly—physician, eye doctor, dentist
Ø What are thetwo most widely publicized components of health promotion?
o Exercise and nutrition
Ø What are some of thepreventive care services covered under Medicare?
o Annually, those with prediabetes every 6 months; no deductible or copayment.
o Not covered routinely, but includes most people age 65+ (if overweight, family history, fasting glucose of 100–125 mg/dl [prediabetes], hypertension, dyslipidemia).
o Covered annually; no deductible, copayment applies
Ø Prostate cancer
o Covered annually; no deductible or copayment.
o Digital rectal examination and PSA test.
Ø Smoking Cessation
o Two quit attempts annually, each consisting of up to four counseling sessions.
o Limited to those with tobacco-related diseases (heart disease, cancer, stroke) or drug regimens that are adversely affected by smoking (insulin, hypertension, seizure, blood clots, depression). Clinicians are encouraged to become credentialed in smoking cessation.
o No deductible or copayment.
o Influenza vaccination covered annually; pneumococcal vaccination covered one time, revaccination after 5 years dependent on risk.
Ø Describe a health contract.
o Theclient is helped to choose an appropriate behavior change goal and to create and implement a plan to accomplish that goal. Thestatement of thegoal and theplan of action are then written into a contract format.
• Identifies and enhances motivation
• Clarifies measurable and modest goals
• Suggests tips to remember new behaviors
• Provides a planned way to involve support persons such as family and friends
Ø Explain Bailey's Bull's eyes
o Thegoal of thebull’s-eye is for people to consume thenutritious foods that are listed in thecenter of it. These foods are low in saturated fat, sugar, and sodium, and high in fiber.
Ø Discuss Healthy People 2010 and 2000.
o Healthy People 2010 is an initiative of theU.S. Department of Health and Human Services that utilized theskills and knowledge of an alliance of more than 350 national organizations and 250 state public health, mental health, substance abuse, and environmental agencies to develop a set of health care objectives designed to increase thequality and quantity of years of healthy life of Americans and to eliminate health disparitie
Ø Define health promotion vs. health screening.
o Health promotion activities are those activities in which an individual is able to proactively engage in order to advance or improve his or her health
o Health screening is a form of secondary prevention and will be a focus of this chapter. In order to endorse screening for a specific disease, theUSPSTF considers whether thedisease occurs with enough frequency in a population to justify mass screening.
Ø What are thethree types of prevention and provide an explanation and example of
o Primary prevention activities are those designed to completely prevent a disease from occurring, such as immunization against pneumonia or influenza.
o Secondary prevention efforts are directed toward early detection and management of disease, such as theuse of colonoscopy to detect small, cancerous polyps or a mammogram.
o Tertiary prevention efforts are used to manage clinical diseases in order to prevent them from progressing or to avoid complications of thedisease, as is
[Solved] STUDY GUIDE for C475 Care of Older Adult Objective Assessment
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