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ATI Pharmacology: Drug Name with Important Information (LATEST)

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ATI Pharmacology: Drug Name with Important Information (LATEST)

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[Solved] ATI Pharmacology: Drug Name with Important Information (LATEST)

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ATI Pharmacology: Drug Name with Important Information (LATEST) ATI Pharmacology: Drug Name with Important Information Drug Name Important Information Digoxin (cardiac glycoside, used to treat dysrhythmias) • Therapeutic Levels 0.8-2.0 • WITHHOLD if HR LESS THAN 60min • Toxicity: Yellowing vision, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, GI effects • Narrow therapeutic range • Positive inotrope, negative chronotrope • Hypokalemia leads to toxicity, hyperK leads to decreased effect • Treatment is cholestyramine (BAR) or Digibind • To prevent “Digoxin-induced dysrythmias, avoid hypokalemia and increased serum digoxin levels • Avoid any drug that is potassium depleting (loop diuretics, ACE Inh and ARBs) Phenytoin (hydantoin class, used to treat seizures) • Therapeutic levels 10-20 • Narrow therapeutic range • Gingival hyperplasia (notify dentist, use soft brush) • Hirsutism, acne • Enzyme inducer • Toxic levels include nystagmus, ataxia • Do not take with milk, decreases absorption of Vit D and Calcium • May cuase thrombocytopenia • Check LFT’s Carbamazepine • Therapeutic levels: 4-12 • Hepatic Autoinducer • Blood dyscrasias (bleeding & bone marrow suppression) /pancytopenia • Promotes secretion of ADH so hypo-osmolarity • Can cause SJS Valproic Acid • Monitor liver and pancreatic enzymes due to damage • Can be used in any type of seizure • Hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, thrombocytopenia Methotrexate • Interrupts cell production, so monitor for bleeds in GI/mucosa/gums. Use soft brushes. Protect skin. • Pregnancy Cat X (stops cell production) and is used to dissolve pregnancy. Moms need to be on strict birth control. • Don’t give with folic acid • Give with leucovorin • Due to immunosuppression, report fever to provider stat • Dosed weekly • Sores in mouth (stomatitis) indicates toxicity. Mannitol (Osmotic diuretic) • Adverse effects: Peripheral edema, Pulmonary edema (can potentiate HF) • ↓ intracranial and intraocular pressure - used in glaucoma Sucralfate • Protects mucosa • Causes constipation, so teach patients to increase fiber and fluid Morphine Sulfate • Primary use is analgesia • Teach patients about side effects: o Respiratory Depression o Constipation o Orthostatic Hypotension o Urinary Retention o Can cause biliary colic Acetazolamide • Used to decrease IOP in glaucoma patients • Adverse effects include paresthesias (tingling of the extremities) Prednisone • Prevent inflammatory response by suppression of airway mucus suppression, immune responses, adrenal function • Adverse Effects o Hyperglycemia o Water retention o Peptic ulcer disease o Myopathy o Delayed wound healing o Gradual reduction required, taper off when done o Causes demineralization of bones  Can lead to osteoporosis and stress fractures  Prednisone is a glucocorticoid. All glucocorticoids can lead to osteoporosis. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfate • Fixes hyperkalemia (may have heard this as kayexalate in the hospital) Atenolol • Cardioselective, water soluble beta blocker Furosemide OTOTOXICITY!! (Watch for tinnitus, vertigo, or hearing loss) • Take in the AM, with milk if needed for stomach upset • Diuretic + antihypertensive = additive hypotensive • Causes hypokalemia & OH o Eat bananas to increase K • At risk for hyperglycemia Ketorolac • Very powerful NSAID • GI, kidney, CV issues. • Contraindicated in ESRD • Can not take more than 5 days Acetaminophen • Maximum daily dose 4g/day • Instruct client not to exceed single dose of 325 mg (adult 4,000 mg/24 hr.) • Percocet contains Acetaminophen, so taking both concurrently increases the chances of Acetaminophen toxicity. Doxycycline • Consume at least 3L/day of fluid Docusate Sodium • Works by lowering surface tension of stool to allow water in Insulin Aspart • Rapid acting Insulin Regular (Short-Acting) Insulin NPH (Intermediate) • Mix regular first, THEN NPH. Neil Patrick Harris comes second. Insulin Glargine (Long-Acting) • No peak • Do NOT mix it with anything else in syringe. Enalapril • Class: Ace-inhibitors • Watch for dry cough and hyperkalemia (3.5-5 mEq/L) o If cough excessive, next choice often ARB (-sartan suffix) • Hyperkalemia is a result of the excretion of Na+ and H2O, and retention of K+ by the kidneys. Aspirin • DO NOT GIVE TO CHILDREN - causes Reye’s syndrome. • Watch for acute salicylate poisoning evidenced by tinnitus. • Toxic levels cause GI distress, anorexia, and acidosis compensated by hyperventilation. Warfarin • Monitor for PT (30-40 sec.) and INR (0.7-1.8) o Therapeutic INR range is 2.0-3.0 for most conditions • Antidote: Phytonadione (Vitamin K) Heparin • Anticoagulant • Antidote is Protamine Sulfate • Monitor platelet count (less than 100,000 can indicate HIT, do NOT administer) • Monitor aPTT (normal/control is 30 sec, therapeutic range 45-75 sec) • Given subQ: do NOT massage site, risk for hemorrhage • Apply gentle pressure • Overdose sign: blood in urine, bruising, hematoma, hypotension, tachy. • May cause hyperkalemia Mag Sulfate • Uses: laxative, anti-convulsant for labor & delivery, tocolytic to stop preterm labor. • ADRs: weak, flaccid muscles, painful muscle contractions • Monitor blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate when IV • Assess signs of toxicity: o Depressed CNS/level of consciousness o depressed or absent deep tendon reflexes o Antidote: calcium gluconate Tamoxifen • Estrogen receptor blocker (Karboski had us learn Raloxifene) • Stops breast cancer growth, so used in that tx • CAUSES endometrial cancer, hypercalcemia, N/V, pulmonary embolism, hot flashes, vaginal discharge, menstrual irregularities, bruising • Anti-estrogenic-used in pre+post menpausal women • CArdiovascular ADRs: chest pain, development...
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