BIO 181 Test Bank 1 Short answer essay: questions and answers > STUDYGuide.
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Short answer essay:
1) Pancake-shaped cells explores the environment – moving filopodia with receptors extend from
cell surface all over cell and “sense” environment. (1 point)
2) Then in some area filopodia stop moving due to signal received (biochemical cascade
changes cell in that area). (1 point)
3) That area restructures to extend large, lamellipodium that pushes out against the plasma
membrane; the mechanism causing this is a new network of actin filaments. (1 point)
4) When lamellipodium touches substrate cell-equivalent of super glue/adhesion plaque holds
substrate. (1 point)
5) Cell equivalent of a muscle (i.e. actin and myosin) assembles and attaches to adhesion plaque
and extends towards nucleus. (1 point)
6) The muscle contracts pulling the back end of the cell forward. (1 point)
7) The above process repeats itself as cell walks directionally. The students must mention that
the process repeats (ie you can’t tell if a person is walking if they just stick out their left leg.) (1
8) Once directionally moving, cell has front and back end with lamellipodia at front end, nucleus
towards back end of cell, and retraction fiber at rear of cell. (1 point)
9) Retraction fiber contains cell-equivalent of super glue/adhesion plaque, thinly stretched (like
rubber band) plasma membrane with very little cytoplasm. Later plasma membrane breaks near
adhesion plaque, and plasma membrane on both side seal the break. Micro Exudate is what cell
leaves behind. (1 point)
A cell that is anchorage-dependent for growth will also exhibit contact inhibition.
The contractile vacuole of the paramecium is possibly an evolutionary precursor of the kidney.
A single-celled eukaryotic organism:
In your own multicellular body, cells with different functions have different DNA.
In Cell Biology what can limit the progress of science?
In your own multicellular body, different cells in your body have a division of labor between them.
What limits the paramecium from acquiring more complex functions? write a sentence
answer here ->_______________________ _.
The paramecium swims by way of using a flagella.
Compared to bacteria which of the cell types below are not responsible for finding food”
A normal cell is anchorage-dependent for growth and mortal.
Write a few sentences that explain what limits an individual cell from becoming more complex.
A cancer cell will be anchorage-dependent for growth and immortal.
A cell that is itself an organism must have a minimum of four needs presented in lecture. List these four things.
In order to examine cells which are smaller than can be detected by the human senses what needs to be used? (pick the best answer).
Comparing a single-celled eukaryotic organism with a multicellular organism such as yourself identify the major difference from the list below.
The paramecium discussed in class contained an organelle called the contractile vacuole. This is the presumed precursor of the:
In an extant prokaryotic cell, the outer boundary of life is the capsule.
After a cell is pancake shaped in a cell culture dish, the order of events that occurs as a cell walks is (pick the best order):
The presumed first step in the transition of the primitive, proto-prokaryotic cell into the primitive, proto-eukaryotic cell was the loss of the cell wall.
Loss of the cell wall is required for the endosymbiotic theory.
Loss of the cell wall was required for the endomembrane system theory.
It is presumed that the peroxisomes evolved in these primitive, proto-eukaryotes to remove oxygen, which was toxic to the primitive cells.
DNA in extant prokaryotic cells is circular.
The cytoskeleton enabled the primitive cell to become motile.
Ribosomes bound to some of the membrane invaginations in the endomembrane theory.
Finish the sentence based on my lectures: The association of ribosomes with
_________________ invaginations would support the_____________ theory.
The cytoskeleton gave rise to the nuclear envelope.
Why is it important to know the limitations of technology?
TEM provides a thin, two-dimensional section of the object being studied.
List one limitation of the cell culture technique.
When cancer cells are crowded by surrounding cells, the cancer cells become spherical and they can still go through cell division.
A normal cell is ____________and_______________ for growth.
The end of the retraction fiber touching the cell culture plate still contains the cell equivalent of super-glue.
Motility improved the fitness of these early cells because:
The ancient earth did not contain much oxygen.
Fluorescence microscopy is a form of light microscopy.
What limits how big a cell can be?
We are made up of______ percent water.
The ER is contiguous with the nuclear envelope.
Explain how the vesicles are carried from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane.
Facilitated diffusion uses a channel protein to let components move down their concentration gradient.
Cholesterol is______ to have in biological membranes.
Amino acids can be largely subdivided into two groups. What are the two groups?
A single pass trans-membrane protein that is an alpha helix can make a channel.
For a protein to enter the endoplasmic reticulum as part of the endoplasmic reticulum’s lumen or part of the endoplasmic reticulum’s membrane:
What are the two functions of a membrane?
Explain the evolutionary origin of mitochondria.
The ER is contiguous with the Golgi apparatus.
What is the difference between a triglyceride and a phospholipid?
The plasma membrane gets new lipids from:
What are the orphaned organelles orphaned from?
Active transport uses ATP to move components in parallel with their concentration gradient, that is: from a high concentration to a low concentration.
What is the difference between a single-pass transmembrane protein and a 7-pass transmembrane protein?
If something is soluble in water a of hydration forms around it and it is termed .
It is a simple matter (i.e., thermodynamically favorable) for a vesicle to form from the endoplasmic reticulum.
When a vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane the contents of the lumen of the vesicle are:
Explain the evolutionary origin of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and vesicles.
Draw a phospholipid and make sure the numbers of carbons are clearly identified.
The diameter of an intermediate filament is 25 nm.
The actin filament system extends outside of the cell.
Naked DNA does not exist in Nature but scientists can make naked DNA in a test tube.
Molecular motors use ATP as the energy source to power the molecular motors.
The actin filament system is present in the nucleus.
Heterochromatin does not exist in interphase nuclei.
Molecular motors run on which two cytoskeletal filament systems?
What does the nucleosomal core have in it (i.e., the basket ball like structure on the slides)?
Where is the histone H1 found?
Which cytoskeletal filament system lines the inside of the nucleus to protect it?
Consider the geography of cells. Actin filaments are present in the cell’s ___ and the microtubules are present in the cell’s .
Chromosomes are made out of Euchromatin.
To get into the nucleus a component has to have the correct signal sequence and pass through a nuclear pore.
Cilia and microvilli contain a similar number of parallel actin filaments.
For a cell to respond to a ligand released from a cell and uses the circulatory system to get to the responding cell it is called______________________ communication.
When a cell “talks to itself” it is called_____________ communication.
MAPK has two different functions depending on where this kinase acts in the
____________ ____________(two words). If the kinase becomes active during interphase the cell is triggered to progress through the_________________________________ (two words).
Two types of second messengers discussed in lecture can exist downstream of a plasma membrane receptor. These are ____________ and_________________ _.
There are two basic types of communication within cells. One type is called
____________ signaling and it takes days to weeks to occur. The other type is called
_________ communication and it takes minutes to hours to act.
There are two basic forms of cytoplasmic signaling (i.e. signal transduction). One uses
____________ and the other uses__________ _.
Autocrine and paracrine
For a cell to respond to a ligand released from a neighboring cell where the ligand diffuses directly from one cell to another is called______________________ communication.
There is communication between cells and communication_______________ cells.
There are two types of receptors. One type of receptor binds to polar (hydrophilic) ligands and this is the receptor located in the____________________________________ (two words).
The other point where MAPK can become active is_____________ of the cell cycle.
When insulin binds to a receptor, this signal first uses_____________ _.
Many chemotherapy drugs act by arresting the cell in M-phase of the cell cycle.
After DNA synthesis (i.e., S-phase) an identical copy of the DNA has been made and this is present in the two chromatids when viewed as the chromosome.
An important checkpoint regulator is at the Gap2/M-phase transition. Here cyclin B and Cdk1 activate and form MPF which becomes a____________________________ (two words) and
causes the DNA to condense into_________ _.
Cancer can be described as a loss of cell cycle regulation.
The activation of both MPF and MAPK result in__________________ (two words) of the
cytoplasm during M-phase.
Cytokinesis in plant and animal cells takes two forms. List them here.
Cytoplasmic signal transduction controls the checkpoints of the cell cycle.
In the time span of 10 years every cell in your adult body goes through the cell cycle.
List the three categories of cells in the body with regard to the cell cycle.
Gap1 of the cell cycle represents the time when the cell is doing what it is supposed to do as part of its cell type. In other words, that is when a liver cell is doing its function as a liver cell.
During mitosis, the cytoplasm of the cell is “settled down”.
In your body not all cells go through the cell cycle.
The_________ begins to be destroyed at the metaphase of the cell cycle causing the
chromosomes to begin to_________ _.
The synthesis/presence of cyclin is what turns on the Cdk as the Cdk is always present but it is the cyclin that is synthesized and degraded in cycles.
At these checkpoints, a cyclin works with a cyclin-dependent kinase (i.e., Cdk) to regulate the checkpoint.
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