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The Reproductive System

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The Reproductive System

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

•   List the major organs of the male and female reproductive systems and describe their functions.

•   Identify and use the word elements of the male and female reproductive systems.

•   Briefly describe symptoms and treatments in response to disorders of the reproductive system.

•   Describe the major drug classifications used to treat reproductive system disorders.

•   Identify and interpret selected abbreviations relating to the reproductive system.

•   Label diagrams of the male and female reproductive systems.

•   Analyze and define the new terms introduced in this chapter.

 

 

 

 

Word Elements •  The Reproductive System

ROOT

MEANING

amni/o

amnion; innermost of the extraembryonic membranes envel- oping the embryo in utero and containing the amniotic fluid

balan/o

glans penis

cervic/o

cervix

circum/o

around

colp/o; vagin/o

vagina

gonad/o

gonads; sex glands

gynec/o

woman; female

lact/o

milk

mast/o; mamm/o

breast

men/o

menses; menstruation

nat/o

birth

oophor/o; oo

ovary; egg

orch/o; orchi/o; orchid/o; test/o

testes

ovari/o

ovary

prostat/o

prostate gland

salping/o

tube; fallopian tube

spermat/o; sperm/o

sperm

uter/o; hyster/o; metr/o

uterus

vas/o

vessel; vas deferens

vulv/o

vulva

 


An Overview of the Reproductive System

The primary function of the reproductive system is to perpetuate life. The reproductive pro- cess begins with fertilization, which occurs when a male gamete (also called a sperm or spermatozoon; plural: spermatozoa) fertilizes a female gamete (also called an ovum; plural: ova). The collective name for any female or male organ that produces a gamete is gonad.

The single cell formed at fertilization is called a zygote, which contains more than a trillion molecules, despite its diameter measuring only 0.1 mm. These trillions of molecules all com- municate and work together in the gestation process. The period of gestation is the time lapse between the formation of the zygote and birth.

Obstetricians (from obstetrix, the Latin word for midwife) are the specialists who provide medical care to pregnant women and deliver babies. Gynecologists (gyn/o, gynec/o means “woman”) diagnose and treat disorders of the female reproductive system, and urologists diag- nose and treat disorders of the urinary and male reproductive systems. Two additional specialists are the neonatologist, who specializes in newborns (neo- means “new”; nat/o means “born”), and the pediatrician, who specializes in children (ped/o means “child”).

 

 


Structure and Function

The reproductive systems in both the male and female may be divided into two groups: the organs of reproduction and the external genitalia. Both reproductive systems have similarities in that they pro- duce special cells to replicate the species, yet they differ in their physical structure and function.

THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The male reproductive system is a combination of reproduction and urinary systems. It consists of the testes (singular: testis), various ducts, the urethra, and the following accessory glands: seminal vesicles, prostate, and the bulbourethral (bulb/o means “bulb-like”; urethr/o means “urethra”; -al is an adjective form) glands. The supporting structure and accessory organs are the scrotum and penis, which are considered the external organs of reproduction (Fig. 14-1).

 

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The Reproductive System LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: • List the major organs of the male and female reproductive systems and describe their functions. • Identify and use the word elements of the male and female reproductive systems. • Briefly describe symptoms and treatments in response to disorders of the reproductive system. • Describe the major drug classifications used to treat reproductive system disorders. • Identify and interpret selected abbreviations relating to the reproductive system. • Label diagrams of the male and female reproductive systems. • Analyze and define the new terms introduced in this chapter. Word Elements • The Reproductive System ROOT MEANING amni/O amnion; innermOst Of the extraembryOnic membranes envel- Oping the embryO in utero and cOntaining...
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The Reproductive System

The Reproductive System LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: • List the major organs of the male and female reproductive systems and describe their functions. • Identify and ...

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