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HESI RN EXIT EXAM

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HESI RN EXIT EXAM

 

1.    A home care nurse is instructing a client with hyperemesis gravidarum about measures to ease the nausea and vomiting. The nurse tells the client to:

A.     Eat foods high in calories and fat

B.     Lie down for at least 20 minutes after meals

C.     Eat carbohydrates such as cereals, rice, and pasta Correct

D.     Consume primarily soups and liquids at mealtimes

Rationale: Low-fat foods and easily digested carbohydrates such as fruit, breads, cereals, rice, and pasta provide important nutrients and help prevent a low blood glucose level, which can cause nausea. Soups and other liquids should be taken between meals to avoid distending the stomach and triggering nausea. Sitting upright after meals reduces gastric reflux. Additionally, food portions should be small and foods with strong odors should be eliminated from the diet, because food smells often incite nausea.

A nurse is caring for a client with preeclampsia who is receiving a magnesium sulfate infusion to prevent eclampsia. Which finding indicates to the nurse that the medication is effective?

E.     Clonus is present. Incorrect

F.     Magnesium level is 10 mg/dL.

G.    Deep tendon reflexes are absent.

H.     The client experiences diuresis within 24 to 48 hours. Correct

Rationale: Magnesium sulfate is effective in preventing seizures (eclampsia) if diuresis occurs within 24 to 48 hours of the start of the infusion. As part of the therapeutic response, renal perfusion is increased and the client is free of visual disturbances, headache, epigastric pain, clonus (the rapid rhythmic jerking motion of the foot that occurs when the client’s lower leg is supported and the foot is sharply dorsiflexed), and seizure activity. Hyperreflexia indicates cerebral irritability. Clonus is normally not present. The therapeutic magnesium level is 4 to 8 mg/dL. Reflexes range from 1+ to 2+ but should not be absent.

A client with preeclampsia who is receiving magnesium sulfate in an intravenous infusion exhibits signs of magnesium toxicity. The nurse immediately prepares for the administration of:

I.       Vitamin K

J.      Protamine sulfate Incorrect

K.     Calcium gluconate Correct

L.     Naloxone hydrochloride

Rationale: Calcium gluconate is the antidote to magnesium sulfate because it antagonizes the effects of magnesium at the neuromuscular junction. It should be readily available whenever magnesium is administered. Vitamin K is the antidote in cases of hemorrhage induced by the administration of oral anticoagulants such as warfarin sodium (Coumadin). Protamine sulfate is the antidote in cases of hemorrhage induced by the administration of heparin. Naloxone hydrochloride is administered to treat opioid-induced respiratory depression.

A nurse instructs a pregnant client about foods that are high in folic acid. Which item does the nurse tell the client is the best source of folic acid?

M.    Milk

N.     Steak

O.    Chicken

P.     Lima beans Correct

Rationale: The best sources of folic acid are liver; kidney, pinto, lima, and black beans; and fresh dark-green leafy vegetables. Other good sources of folic acid are orange juice, peanuts, refried beans, and peas. Milk is high in calcium. Chicken and steak are high in protein.

A nurse is providing instructions to a mother of an infant with seborrheic dermatitis (cradle cap) about treatment of the condition. The nurse tells the mother to:

Q.    Avoid the use of shampoo on the infant’s scalp Incorrect

R.     Apply oil to the affected area on the infant’s scalp Correct

S.     Wash the infant’s scalp daily, using only tepid water

T.     Shampoo the infant’s scalp, avoiding the anterior fontanel area

Rationale: Seborrheic dermatitis, a chronic inflammation of the scalp or other areas of the skin, is characterized by yellow, scaly, oily lesions. It sometimes results when parents do not wash over the anterior fontanel carefully for fear that they will hurt the infant. Treatment includes the application of oil (e.g., mineral oil) to the area to help soften the lesions followed by gentle removal of the scaly lesions with a comb before the head is shampooed. The nurse should teach the mother how to shampoo the scalp and explain that she will not damage the fontanel with normal gentle shampooing. The scalp should be rinsed well to remove all soap, which could cause irritation.

A nurse is monitoring a client who was given an epidural opioid for a cesarean birth. The nurse notes that the client’s oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry is 92%. The nurse first:

U.     Notifies the registered nurse

V.     Documents the findings

W.    Instructs the client to take several deep breaths Correct

X.     Administers 100% oxygen by way of face mask Incorrect

Rationale: If the client has been given an epidural opioid, the nurse should monitor the client’s respiratory status closely. If the oxygen saturation falls below 95%, the nurse instructs the client to take several deep breaths to increase the level. Although the finding would be documented, action is required to increase the oxygen saturation level. It is not necessary to contact the registered nurse. If the deep breaths fail to increase the oxygen saturation level, the registered nurse is notified and may prescribe oxygen.

A client who delivered a healthy newborn 11 days ago calls the clinic and tells the nurse that she is experiencing a white vaginal discharge. The nurse tells the client:

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HESI RN EXIT EXAM 1. A home care nurse is instructing a client with hyperemesis gravidarum about measures to ease the nausea and vomiting. The nurse tells the client to: A. Eat foods high in calories and fat B. Lie down for at least 20 minutes after meals C. Eat carbohydrates such as cereals, rice, and pasta Correct D. Consume primarily soups and liquids at mealtimes Rationale: Low-fat foods and easily digested carbohydrates such as fruit, breads, cereals, rice, and pasta provide important nutrients and help prevent a low blood glucose level, which can cause nausea. Soups and other liquids should be taken between meals to avoid distending the stomach and triggering nausea. Sitting upright after meals reduces gastric reflux. Additionally, food portions should be small and foods with strong odors should be eliminated from the diet, because food smells often incite nausea. A nurse is caring for a client with preeclampsia who is receiving a magnesium sulfate infusion to prevent eclampsia. Which finding indicates to the nurse that the medication is effective? E. Clonus is present. Incorrect F. Magnesium level is 10 mg/dL. G. Deep tendon reflexes are absent. H. The client experiences diuresis within 24 to 48 hours. Correct Rationale: Magnesium sulfate is effective in preventing seizures (eclampsia) if diuresis oc...
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