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NR 507 Week 2 Quiz (2 Versions) / NR507 Week 2 Quiz (Latest-2021)

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NR 507 Week 2 Quiz (2 Versions) / NR507 Week 2 Quiz (Latest-2021): Advanced Pathophysiology: Chamberlain College of Nursing |100% Correct Answers, Download to Score A| NR 507 Week 2 Quiz – Question s and Answers with Explanation Water movement between the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular compartment is primarily a function of How does the loss of chloride during vomiting cause metabolic alkalosis What is a major determinant of the resting membrane potential necessary for transmission of nerve impulses? Why are infants susceptible to significant losses in total body water (TBW)? At the arterial end of capillaries, fluid moves from the intravascular space into the interstitial space because the When thirst is experienced, how are osmoreceptors activated? Physiologic pH is maintained around 7.4 because bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) exist in a ratio of Pulmonary edema usually begins at a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure of _____ mm Hg. _____ is a fulminant form of respiratory failure … by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury. Dyspnea is not a result of In tuberculosis, the body walls off the bacilli in a tubercle by stimulating Clinical manifestations of pulmonary hypertension include Clinical manifestations that include unexplained weight loss, dyspnea on exertion, use of accessory muscles, and tachypnea with prolonged expiration are indicative of In ARDS, alveoli and respiratory bronchioles fill with fluid as a result of the nr 507 week 2 quiz High altitudes may produce hypoxemia through Which inflammatory mediators are produced in asthma? Which pleural abnormality involves a site of pleural rupture that act as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration? The most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with What is the primary cause of RDS of the newborn An accurate description of childhood asthma is that it is a(n) The release of fibroblast growth factors affects ARDS by causing Which immunoglobulin is present in childhood asthma? Which of the following statements about the advances in the treatment of RDS of the newborn is incorrect? Cystic fibrosis (CF) is ….by a(n) Which of the following types of croup is most common? Chest wall compliance in infants is _____ in adults. Chvostek sign and Trousseau sign indicate Which are indications of dehydration? In hyperkalemia, cardiac rhythm changes are a direct result of Which of the following is a true statement? Which enzyme is … by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney when circulating blood volume is …..? A(n) _____ is a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma. Kussmaul respirations may … characterized as a respiratory pattern Submitted Jul 16 at 4:34pm Question 1 2 / 2 pts Water movement between the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular compartment is primarily a function of antidiuretic hormone. Correct! osmotic forces. plasma oncotic pressure. hydrostatic forces. The movement of water between ICF and ECF compartments is primarily a function of osmotic forces. (Osmosis and other mechanisms of passive transport are discussed in Chapter 1.) Question 2 2 / 2 pts What is a major determinant of the resting membrane potential necessary for transmission of nerve impulses? Correct! The ratio between intracellular K+ and extracellular potassium The ratio between intracellular K+ and extracellular Na+ The ratio between intracellular Na+ and extracellular K+ The ratio between intracellular Na+ and extracellular sodium The ratio of K+ in the ICF to K+ in the ECF is the major determinant of the resting membrane potential, which is necessary for the transmission and conduction of nerve impulses, maintenance of normal cardiac rhythms, and skeletal and smooth muscle contraction. Question 3 0 / 2 pts How does the loss of chloride during vomiting cause metabolic alkalosis? Loss of chloride stimulates the release of aldosterone, which causes the retained sodium to bind with the chloride. Correct Answer Loss of chloride causes retention of bicarbonate to maintain the anion balance. You Answered Loss of chloride causes hydrogen to move into the cell and exchange with potassium to maintain cation balance. Loss of chloride causes hypoventilation to compensate for the metabolic alkalosis. When acid loss is caused by vomiting with depletion of ECF and chloride (hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis), renal compensation is not very effective because the volume depletion and loss of electrolytes (Na+, K+, H+, Cl-) stimulate a paradoxical response by the kidneys. The kidneys increase sodium and bicarbonate reabsorption with excretion of hydrogen. Bicarbonate is reabsorbed to maintain an anionic balance because the ECF chloride concentration is decreased. Question 4 2 / 2 pts When thirst is experienced, how are osmoreceptors activated? Correct! By an increase in the osmotic pressure of the plasma By an increase in aldosterone secreted into the plasma By an increase in the hydrostatic pressure of the plasma By an increase in the antidiuretic hormone secreted into the plasma Thirst is experienced when water loss equals 2% of an individual’s body weight or when there is an increase in osmolality. Dry mouth, hyperosmolality, and plasma volume depletion activate osmoreceptors (neurons located in the hypothalamus that are stimulated by increased osmolality). Question 5 2 / 2 pts Which enzyme is secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney when circulating blood volume is reduced? Angiotensin I Aldosterone Angiotensin II Correct! Renin When circulating blood volume or blood pressure is reduced, renin, an enzyme secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney, is released in response to sympathetic nerve stimulation and decreased perfusion of the renal vasculature. Question 6 2 / 2 pts Physiologic pH is maintained around 7.4 because bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) exist in a ratio of Correct! 20:1. 10:2. 10:5. 1:20. The relationship between bicarbonate and carbonic acid is usually expressed as a ratio. When the pH is 7.40, this ratio is 20:1 (bicarbonate/carbonic acid). Question 7 2 / 2 pts Which are indications of dehydration? Muscle weakness and decreased deep tendon reflexes Polyuria and hyperventilation Decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit Correct! Tachycardia and weight loss Marked water deficit is manifested by symptoms of dehydration: headache, thirst, dry skin and mucous membranes, elevated temperature, weight loss, and decreased or concentrated urine (with the exception of diabetes insipidus). Skin turgor may be normal or decreased. Symptoms of hypovolemia, including tachycardia, weak pulses, and postural hypotension, may be present. Question 8 2 / 2 pts Which inflammatory mediators are produced in asthma? Correct! Histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes Lymphokines, serotonin, and prostaglandins Neutrophil proteases, bradykinin, and histamine Bradykinin, serotonin, and neutrophil proteases A large number of inflammatory mediators, such as histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes are produced by asthma. Question 9 2 / 2 pts In ARDS, alveoli and respiratory bronchioles fill with fluid as a result of the increased capillary permeability, which causes alveoli and respiratory bronchioles to fill with fluid. compression on the pores of Kohn, thus preventing collateral ventilation. Correct! inactivation of surfactant and the impairment of type II alveolar cells. increased capillary hydrostatic pressure that forces fluid into the alveoli and respiratory bronchioles. Lung inflammation and injury damages the alveolar epithelium and the vascular endothelium. Surfactant is inactivated, and its production by type II alveolar cells is impaired as alveoli and respiratory bronchioles fill with fluid or collapse. Question 10 2 / 2 pts Clinical manifestations that include unexplained weight loss, dyspnea on exertion, use of accessory muscles, and tachypnea with prolonged expiration are indicative of pneumonia. Correct! emphysema. chronic bronchitis. asthma. Individuals with emphysema usually have dyspnea on exertion that later progresses to marked dyspnea, even at rest (Table 33-3). Little coughing and very little sputum are produced. The individual often is thin, has tachypnea with prolonged expiration, and must use accessory muscles for ventilation. The anteroposterior diameter of the chest is increased (barrel chest), and the chest has a hyperresonant sound with percussion. Question 11 2 / 2 pts A(n) _____ is a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma. Correct! abscess cavitation empyema consolidation An abscess is a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma. Question 12 2 / 2 pts Pulmonary edema usually begins at a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure of _____ mm Hg. Correct! 20 40 30 10 Pulmonary edema usually begins to develop at a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure of 20 mm Hg. Question 13 2 / 2 pts High altitudes may produce hypoxemia through diffusion abnormalities. shunting. Correct! decreased inspired oxygen. hypoventilation. The first factor is the presence of adequate oxygen content of the inspired air. Oxygen content is lessened at high altitudes. Question 14 2 / 2 pts Dyspnea is not a result of fatigue of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm. Correct! decreased blood flow to the medulla oblongata. stimulation of stretch or J-receptors. decreased pH, increased PaCO2, and decreased PaO2. There are no data to support the role of decreased blood flow to the medulla oblongata as being a cause of dyspnea. Question 15 2 / 2 pts In tuberculosis, the body walls off the bacilli in a tubercle by stimulating macrophages that release TNF-α. phagocytosis by neutrophils and eosinophils. formation of immunoglobulin G to initiate the complement cascade. Correct! apoptotic infected macrophages that activate cytotoxic T cells. In defense, macrophages and lymphocytes release interferon, which inhibits the replication of the microorganism and stimulates more macrophages to attack the bacterium. Apoptotic infected macrophages also can activate cytotoxic T cells (CD8). Question 16 2 / 2 pts The most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with Correct! elimination of the causative agent. drugs that reduce bronchospasm. drugs that decrease airway inflammation. broad-spectrum antibiotics. Chronic management of asthma begins with avoidance of allergens and other triggers. Question 17 0 / 2 pts Which of the following is a true statement? Hyperventilation causes hypercapnia. Hypoventilation causes hypocapnia. You Answered Hyperventilation results in an increased PaCO2. Correct Answer Hyperventilation causes hypocapnia. Hyperventilation is alveolar ventilation that exceeds metabolic demands. The lungs remove CO2 at a faster rate than it is produced by cellular metabolism, resulting in decreased PaCO2 or hypocapnia. Question 18 2 / 2 pts Which pleural abnormality involves a site of pleural rupture that act as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration? Open pneumothorax Spontaneous pneumothorax Correct! Tension pneumothorax Secondary pneumothorax In tension pneumothorax, the site of pleural rupture acts as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing up during expiration. As more and more air enters the pleural space, air pressure in the pneumothorax begins to exceed barometric pressure. Question 19 2 / 2 pts Which of the following types of croup is most common? Fungal Correct! Viral Bacterial Autoimmune In 85% of cases, croup is caused by a virus, most commonly parainfluenza; however, other viruses such as influenza A or RSV also can cause croup. Question 20 2 / 2 pts Which of the following statements about the advances in the treatment of RDS of the newborn is incorrect? Treatment includes the instillation of exogenous surfactant down an endotracheal tube of infants weighing less than 1,000 g. Supporting the infant’s respiratory function by using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). An infant’s respiratory function is supported by using continuous pressure (CPAP). Administering glucocorticoids to women in preterm labor accelerates the maturation of the fetus’s lungs. Correct! Administering oxygen to mothers during preterm labor increases their arterial oxygen before birth of the fetus. Administration of oxygen to the mother is not a valid treatment of RDS. Question 21 2 / 2 pts What is the primary cause of RDS of the newborn? Small alveoli An immature immune system Anemia Correct! A surfactant deficiency RDS is caused primarily by surfactant deficiency and secondarily by a deficiency in alveolar surface area for gas exchange. Question 22 2 / 2 pts The release of fibroblast growth factors affects ARDS by causing Correct! pulmonary fibrosis. atelectasis and decreased lung compliance. disruption of alveolocapillary membrane. pulmonary hypertension. In the fibroproliferative phase, type II alveolar cells proliferate, and there is alveolar septal thickening and collagen deposition. Interstitial fibrosis can be evident as early as 10 days after the initial insult. Similarly, vascular changes may occur, including obliteration of the microcirculation and thickening of the walls of pulmonary arterioles and arteries, which can lead to chronic pulmonary hypertension in survivors. Question 23 2 / 2 pts Chest wall compliance in infants is _____ in adults. unlike that lower than Correct! higher than the same as Chest wall compliance is high in infants, particularly premature infants. Question 24 2 / 2 pts Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a(n) malignancy. autosomal dominant inheritance. Correct! autosomal recessive inheritance. infection. Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder that is associated with defective epithelial ion transport. Question 25 2 / 2 pts An accurate description of childhood asthma is that it is a(n) Correct! obstructive airway disease characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and inflammation. pulmonary disorder involving an abnormal expression of a protein producing viscous mucus that lines the airways, pancreas, sweat ducts, and vas deferens. pulmonary disease characterized by severe hypoxemia, decreased pulmonary compliance, and diffuse densities on chest x-ray. obstructive airway disease characterized by atelectasis and increased pulmonary resistance as a result of a surfactant deficiency. Asthma is an obstructive airway disease characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and inflammation. PreviousNext 

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[Solved] NR 507 Week 2 Quiz (2 Versions) / NR507 Week 2 Quiz (Latest-2021)

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NR 507 Week 2 Quiz (2 Versions) / NR507 Week 2 Quiz (Latest-2021): Advanced Pathophysiology: Chamberlain College of Nursing |100% Correct Answers, Download to Score A| NR 507 Week 2 Quiz – Question s and Answers with Explanation Water movement between the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular compartment is primarily a function of How does the loss of chloride during vomiting cause metabolic alkalosis What is a major determinant of the resting membrane potential necessary for transmission of nerve impulses? Why are infants susceptible to significant losses in total body water (TBW)? At the arterial end of capillaries, fluid moves from the intravascular space into the interstitial space because the When thirst is experienced, how are osmoreceptors activated? Physiologic pH is maintained around 7.4 because bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) exist in a ratio of Pulmonary edema usually begins at a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure of _____ mm Hg. _____ is a fulminant form of respiratory failure … by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury. Dyspnea is not a result of In tuberculosis, the body walls off the bacilli in a tubercle by stimulating Clinical manifestations of pulmonary hypertension include Clinical manifestations that include unexplained weight loss, dyspnea on exertion, use of accessory muscles, and tachypnea with prolonged expiration are indicative of In ARDS, alveoli and respiratory bronchioles fill with fluid as a result of the nr 507 week 2 quiz High altitudes may produce hypoxemia through Which inflammatory mediators are produced in asthma? Which pleural abnormality involves a site of pleural rupture that act as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration? The most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with What is the primary cause of RDS of the newborn An accurate description of childhood asthma is that it is a(n) The release of fibroblast growth factors affects ARDS by causing Which immunoglobulin is present in childhood asthma? Which of the following statements about the advances in the treatment of RDS of the newborn is incorrect? Cystic fibrosis (CF) is ….by a(n) Which of the following types of croup is most common? Chest wall compliance in infants is _____ in adults. Chvostek sign and Trousseau sign indicate Which are indications of dehydration? In hyperkalemia, cardiac rhythm changes are a direct result of Which of the following is a true statement? Which enzyme is … by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney when circulating blood volume is …..? A(n) _____ is a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma. Kussmaul respirations may … characterized as a respiratory pattern Submitted Jul 16 at 4:34pm Question 1 2 / 2 pts Water movement between the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular compartment is primarily a function of antidiuretic hormone. Correct! osmotic forces. plasma oncotic pressure. hydrostatic forces. The movement of water between ICF and ECF compartments is primarily a function of osmotic forces. (Osmosis and other mechanisms of passive transport are discussed in Chapter 1.) Question 2 2 / 2 pts What is a major determinant of the resting membrane potential necessary for transmission of nerve impulses? Correct! The ratio between intracellular K+ and extracellular potassium The ratio between intracellular K+ and extracellular Na+ The ratio between intracellular Na+ and extracellular K+ The ratio between intracellular Na+ and extracellular sodium The ratio of K+ in the ICF to K+ in the ECF is the major determinant of the r...
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