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NR 507 Week 8 Final Exam/NR507 Week 8 Final Exam(Vers 2, NEW,75 Q&A):Chamberlain College of Nursing

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NR 507 Week 8 Final Exam / NR507 Week 8 Final Exam (Version 2, NEW): Advanced Pathophysiology: Chamberlain College of Nursing

Chamberlain NR 507 Final Exam / Chamberlain NR507 Final Exam (Version 2, LATEST): Advanced Pathophysiology

 

Question : 1

What term is used to describe a hernial protrusion of a saclike cyst that contains meninges, spinal fluid, and a portion of the spinal cord through a defect in a posterior arch of a vertebra?

 

Student Answer:

 Encephalocele

 

 Meningocele

 

 Spina bifida occulta

 

 Myelomeningocele

 

Instructor Explanation:

 

Question 2.

Question :

What provides the best estimate of the functioning of renal tissue?

 

Student Answer:

 Glomerular filtration rate

 

 Hourly urine output

 

 Serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine

 

 The specific gravity of the solute concentration of the urine

 

 

Question 3.

Question :

Where are Langerhans cells found?

 

Student Answer:

 Skin

 

 Intestinal lining

 

 Kidney

 

 Thyroid

 

 

Question 4.

Question :

Where in the lung does gas exchange occur?

 

Student Answer:

 Trachea

 

 Segmental bronchi

 

 Alveolocapillary membrane

 

 Main bronchus

 

Question 5.

Question :

The tonic neck reflex observed in a newborn should no longer be obtainable by:

 

Student Answer:

 2 years

 

 1 year

 

 10 months

 

 5 months

 

Question 6.

Question :

When renin is released, it is capable of which action?

 

Student Answer:

 Inactivation of autoregulation

 

 Direct activation of angiotensin II

 

 Direct release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

 

 Formation of angiotensin I

 

 

Question 7.

Question :

The portion of the antigen that is configured for recognition and binding is referred to as what type of determinant?

 

Student Answer:

 Immunotope

 

 Paratope

 

 Epitope

 

 Antigenitope

 

 

Question 8.

Question :

Which sexually transmitted infection frequently coexists with gonorrhea?

 

Student Answer:

 Syphilis

 

 Herpes simplex virus

 

 Chlamydia

 

 Chancroid

 

Question 9.

Question :

How is the effectiveness of vitamin B12 therapy measured?

 

Student Answer:

 Reticulocyte count

 

 Serum transferring

 

 Hemoglobin

 

 Serum vitamin B12

 

Question 10.

Question :

Carcinoma refers to abnormal cell proliferation originating from which tissue origin?

 

Student Answer:

 Blood vessels

 

 Epithelial cells

 

 Connective tissue

 

 Glandular tissue

 

 

Question 11.

Question :

Which type of microorganism reproduces on the skin?

 

Student Answer:

 Viruses

 

 Bacteria and fungi

 

 Protozoa and Rickettsiae

 

 Mycoplasma

 

 

Question 12.

Question :

An infant has a crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur located between the second and third intercostal spaces along the left sternal border. A wide fixed splitting of the second heart sound is also found. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect?

 

Student Answer:

 Atrial septal defect (ASD)

 

 Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

 

 Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

 

 Atrioventricular canal (AVC) defect

 

 

Question 13.

Question :

An infant diagnosed with a small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) would likely exhibit which symptom?

 

Student Answer:

 Intermittent murmur

 

 Lack of symptoms

 

 Need for surgical repair

 

 Triad of congenital defects

 

Question 14.

Question :

What is the function of erythrocytes?

 

Student Answer:

 Tissue oxygenation

 

 Hemostasis

 

 Infection control

 

 Allergy response

 

Question 15.

Question :

Which terms represent the correct nomenclature for benign and malignant tumors of adipose tissue, respectively?

 

Student Answer:

 Liposarcoma, lipoma

 

 Lipoma, liposarcoma

 

 Adisarcoma, adipoma

 

 Adipoma, adisarcoma

 

Question 16.

Question :

What is the chance with each pregnancy that a child born to two parents with the sickle trait will have sickle cell disease (SCD)?

 

Student Answer:

 20%

 

 25%

 

 33%

 

 50%

 

Question 17.

Question :

What pulmonary defense mechanism propels a mucous blanket that entraps particles moving toward the oropharynx?

 

Student Answer:

 Nasal turbinates

 

 Alveolar macrophages

 

 Cilia

 

 Irritant receptors on the nares

 

 

Question 18.

Question :

The concentration of the final urine is determined by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which is secreted by which gland?

 

Student Answer:

 Posterior pituitary

 

 Thyroid

 

 Parathyroid

 

 Anterior pituitary

 

Question 19.

Question :

Why is the herpes virus inaccessible to antibodies after the initial infection?

 

Student Answer:

 The virus does not circulate in the blood.

 

 It does not have antibody receptors.

 

 It resists agglutination.

 

 The virus is a soluble antigen.

 

Question 20.

Question :

Which renal change is found in older adults?

 

Student Answer:

 Sharp decline in glomerular filtration rate

 

 Sharp decline in renal blood flow

 

 Decrease in the number of nephrons

 

 Decrease in urine output

 

 

Question 21.

Question :

Which immunoglobulin is present in blood, saliva, breast milk, and respiratory secretions?

 

Student Answer:

 IgA

 

 IgE

 

 IgG

 

 IgM

 

Question 22.

Question :

Which hormone prompts increased anxiety, vigilance, and arousal during a stress response?

 

Student Answer:

 Norepinephrine

 

 Epinephrine

 

 Cortisol

 

 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

 

Question 23.

Question :

Which statement is true regarding maternal antibodies provided to the neonate?

 

Student Answer:

 The antibodies enter into the fetal circulation by means of active transport.

 

 The antibodies are transferred to the fetus via the lymphatic system.

 

 The antibodies are directly related to the mother’s nutritional intake.

 

 The antibodies reach protective levels after approximately 6 months of age.

 

Question 24.

Question :

The function of the tumor cell marker is to:

 

Student Answer:

 Provide a definitive diagnosis of cancer.

 

 Treat certain types of cancer.

 

 Predict where cancers will develop.

 

 Screen individuals at high risk for cancer.

 

Question 25.

Question :

Which statement is true concerning a fungal infection?

 

Student Answer:

 Fungal infections occur only on skin, hair, and nails.

 

 Phagocytes and T lymphocytes control fungal infections.

 

 Fungal infections release endotoxins.

 

 Vaccines prevent fungal infections.

 

 

Question 26.

Question :

Which change is a result of puberty and defends the vagina from infection?

 

Student Answer:

 The pH stabilizes between 7 and 8.

 

 A thin squamous epithelial lining develops.

 

 Vaginal pH becomes more acidic.

 

 Estrogen levels are low.

 

Question 27.

Question :

The number of persons living with a specific disease at a specific point in time is referred to by which term?

 

Student Answer:

 Relativity

 

 Survivability

 

 Prevalence

 

 Incidence

 

 

 

Question 28.

Question :

Which risk factor for hypertension is influenced by genetic factors and lifestyle?

 

Student Answer:

 Sodium intake

 

 Physical inactivity

 

 Psychosocial stress

 

 Obesity

 

 

Question 29.

Question :

Having ejected a mature ovum, the ovarian follicle develops into a(n):

 

Student Answer:

 Atretic follicle

 

 Thecal follicle

 

 Corpus luteum

 

 Functional scar

 

Question 30.

Question :

The failure of bones to ossify, resulting in soft bones and skeletal deformity, characterizes which disorder?

 

Student Answer:

 Osteogenesis imperfecta

 

 Rickets

 

 Osteochondrosis

 

 Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

 

 

Question 31.

Question :

What is the term that denotes the duration of time or the intensity of pain that a person will endure before outwardly responding?

 

Student Answer:

 Tolerance

 

 Perception

 

 Threshold

 

 Dominance

 

Question 32.

Question :

Aldosterone directly increases the reabsorption of:

 

Student Answer:

 Magnesium

 

 Calcium

 

 Sodium

 

 Water

 

Question 33.

Question :

Atrial fibrillation, rheumatic heart disease, and valvular prosthetics are risk factors for which type of stroke?

 

Student Answer:

 Hemorrhagic

 

 Thrombotic

 

 Embolic

 

 Lacunar

 

Question 34.

Question :

Which clinical manifestations are associated with fibromyalgia?

 

Student Answer:

 Hot, tender, and edematous muscle groups bilaterally

 

 Fasciculations of the upper and lower extremity muscles

 

 Exercise intolerance and painful muscle cramps

 

 Sensitivity at tender points and profound fatigue

 

Question 35.

Question :

Prolonged high environmental temperatures that produce dehydration, decreased plasma volumes, hypotension, decreased cardiac output, and tachycardia cause which disorder of temperature regulation?

 

Student Answer:

 Heat cramps

 

 Heat stroke

 

 Malignant hyperthermia

 

 Heat exhaustion

 

 

Question 36.

Question :

What is the leading cause of infertility in women?

 

Student Answer:

 Pelvic inflammatory disease

 

 Endometriosis

 

 Salpingitis

 

 Polycystic ovary syndrome

 

Question 37.

Question :

Which substance is a water-soluble protein hormone?

 

Student Answer:

 Thyroxine

 

 Aldosterone

 

 Follicle-stimulating hormone

 

 Insulin

 

 

Question 38.

Question :

What is the target tissue for prolactin-releasing factor?

 

Student Answer:

 Hypothalamus

 

 Anterior pituitary

 

 Mammary glands

 

 Posterior pituitary

 

Question 39.

Question :

What is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)?

 

Student Answer:

 Diet high in saturated fats

 

 Increased production of cholesterol by the liver

 

 Reduction in the number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cell surfaces

 

 Abnormal function of lipoprotein receptors circulating in the blood

 

Question 40.

Question :

Regarding type 2 diabetes, obesity is considered to be what type of risk?

 

Student Answer:

 Genetic

 

 Empirical

 

 Relative

 

 Modifiable

 

Question 41.

Question :

Which four-step process correctly describes muscle contraction?

 

Student Answer:

 Coupling, contraction, relaxation, excitation

 

 Contraction, relaxation, excitation, coupling

 

 Relaxation, excitation, coupling, contraction

 

 Excitation, coupling, contraction, relaxation

 

 

Question 42.

Question :

Adoption studies have shown that the offspring of an alcoholic parent when raised by nonalcoholic parents have what amount of an increased risk of developing alcoholism?

 

Student Answer:

 Twofold

 

 Threefold

 

 Fourfold

 

 Tenfold

 

Question 43.

Question :

Which hormone stimulates gonads to produce both male and female hormones?

 

Student Answer:

 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

 

 Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

 

 Luteinizing hormone (LH)

 

 Estrogen

 

Question 44.

Question :

A person with 47, XXY karyotype has the genetic disorder resulting in which syndrome?

 

Student Answer:

 Turner

 

 Klinefelter

 

 Down

 

 Fragile X

 

 

Question 45.

Question :

Which would be considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia?

 

Student Answer:

 Blunted affect

 

 Auditory hallucinations

 

 Poverty of speech

 

 Lack of social interaction

 

Question 46.

Question :

What term describes the loss of the comprehension or production of language?

 

Student Answer:

 Agnosia

 

 Aphasia

 

 Akinesia

 

 Dysphasia

 

 

Question 47.

Question :

Consanguinity refers to the mating of persons:

 

Student Answer:

 Who are unrelated

 

 When one has an autosomal dominant disorder

 

 Having common family relations

 

 When one has a chromosomal abnormality

 

 

Question 48.

Question :

The major sleep center is located in which section of the brain?

 

Student Answer:

 Thalamus

 

 Brainstem

 

 Frontal lobe

 

 Hypothalamus

 

Question 49.

Question :

Which type of ion directly controls the contraction of muscles?

 

Student Answer:

 Sodium

 

 Potassium

 

 Calcium

 

 Magnesium

 

Question 50.

Question :

Bacteria gain access to the female urinary tract by which means?

 

Student Answer:

 Systemic blood that is filtered through the kidney

 

 Bacteria traveling from the lymph adjacent to the bladder and kidneys

 

 Bacteria ascending the urethra into the bladder

 

 Colonization of the bladder when urine is static

 

 

Question 51.

Question :

A criterion for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a period of excessive worrying that lasts for at least how many months?

 

Student Answer:

 3

 

 6

 

 9

 

 12

 

Question 52.

Question :

What is the first indication of nephrotic syndrome in children?

 

Student Answer:

 Periorbital edema

 

 Scrotal or labial edema

 

 Frothy urine

 

 Ascites

 

 

Question 53.

Question :

An amniocentesis indicates a neural tube defect when an increase in which protein is evident?

 

Student Answer:

 Chorionic

 

 Alpha fetoprotein

 

 Amniotic

 

 Embryonic

 

Question 54.

Question :

What is the risk for the recurrence of autosomal dominant diseases?

 

Student Answer:

 10%

 

 30%

 

 50%

 

 70%

 

 

Question 55.

Question :

Which term is used to identify the temporary displacement of two bones causing the bone surfaces to partially lose contact?

 

Student Answer:

 Dislocation

 

 Subluxation

 

 Malunion

 

 Nonunion

 

Question 56.

Question :

The tear in a ligament is referred to as a:

 

Student Answer:

 Fracture

 

 Strain

 

 Disunion

 

 Sprain

 

 

Question 57.

Question :

Why is prolonged diarrhea more severe in children than it is in adults?

 

Student Answer:

 Less water is absorbed from the colon in children.

 

 Fluid reserves are smaller in children.

 

 Children have a higher fluid volume intake.

 

 Children have diarrhea more often than adults.

 

Question 58.

Question :

The BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations increase the risk of which cancer in women?

 

Student Answer:

 Ovarian

 

 Lung

 

 Uterine

 

 Pancreatic

 

 

Question 59.

Question :

Insulin transports which electrolyte in the cell?

 

Student Answer:

 Potassium

 

 Calcium

 

 Sodium

 

 Phosphorus

 

Question 60.

Question :

What term is used to identify an interlacing bundle of dense, white fibrous tissue that is richly supplied with nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels?

 

Student Answer:

 Procallus

 

 Joint capsule

 

 Hematoma

 

 Elastin fibers

 

 

Question 61.

Question :

Which of the following is a lipid-soluble hormone?

 

Student Answer:

 Cortisol

 

 Oxytocin

 

 Epinephrine

 

 Growth hormone

 

Question 62.

Question :

The mucosal secretions of the cervix secrete which immunoglobulin?

 

Student Answer:

 IgA

 

 IgE

 

 IgG

 

 IgM

 

Question 63.

Question :

The sudden apparent arousal in which a child expresses intense fear or another strong emotion while still in a sleep state characterizes which sleep disorder?

 

Student Answer:

 Night terrors

 

 Insomnia

 

 Somnambulism

 

 Enuresis

 

Question 64.

Question :

What is the basic structural unit in compact bone?

 

Student Answer:

 Small channels called canaliculi

 

 Osteocytes within the lacunae

 

 Tiny spaces within the lacunae

 

 Haversian system

 

 

Question 65.

Question :

Parkinson disease is a degenerative disorder of the brain’s:

 

Student Answer:

 Hypothalamus

 

 Anterior pituitary

 

 Frontal lobe

 

 Basal ganglia

 

Question 66.

Question :

Which pain theory proposes that a balance of impulses conducted from the spinal cord to the higher centers in the central nervous system (CNS) modulates the transmission of pain?

 

Student Answer:

 GCT

 

 Pattern theory

 

 Specificittheory

 

 Neuromatrix theory

 

 

Question 67.

Question :

Saliva contains which immunoglobulin (Ig)?

 

Student Answer:

 IgA

 

 IgE

 

 IgG

 

 IgM

 

Question 68.

Question :

What type of fracture occurs at a site of a preexisting bone abnormality and is a result of a force that would not normally cause a fracture?

 

Student Answer:

 Idiopathic

 

 Incomplete

 

 Pathologic

 

 Greenstick

 

 

Question 69.

Question :

An infant suddenly develops abdominal pain, becomes irritable (colicky), and draws up the knees. Vomiting occurs soon afterward. The mother reports that the infant passed a normal stool, followed by one that looked like currant jelly. Based on these data, which disorder does the nurse suspect?

 

Student Answer:

 Congenital aganglionic megacolon

 

 Intussusception

 

 Malrotation

 

 Volvulus

 

 

Question 70.

Question :

In 95% of children of delayed puberty, the problem is caused by:

 

Student Answer:

 Disruption in the hypothalamus

 

 Disruption of the pituitary

 

 Deficit in estrogen or testosterone

 

 Physiologic hormonal delays

 

Question 71.

Question :

Which characteristic is true of type II (white fast-motor) muscle fibers?

 

Student Answer:

 Slow contraction speed

 

 Fast conduction velocities

 

 Profuse capillary supply

 

 Oxidative metabolism

 

Question 72.

Question :

Neurofibrillary tangles characterize which neurologic disorder?

 

Student Answer:

 Dementia syndrome

 

 Delirium

 

 Alzheimer disease

 

 Parkinson disease

 

Question 73.

Question :

Which hormone triggers uterine contractions?

 

Student Answer:

 Thyroxine

 

 Oxytocin

 

 Growth hormone

 

 Insulin

 

 

Question 74.

Question :

How does the release (increase) of epinephrine raise body temperature?

 

Student Answer:

 The release of epinephrine causes shivering.

 

 It affects muscle tone.

 

 It raises the metabolic rate.

 

 It increases and strengthens the heart rate.

 

Question 75.

Question :

Which hormone is linked to an increase in appetite during puberty?

 

Student Answer:

 Inhibin

 

 Leptin

 

 Activin

 

 Follistatin

 

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