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APA format, list references and in-text citations

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APA format, list references and in-text citations

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1. Explain “Broken Window Theory” and give examples from your professional or personal life where you have seen examples of these areas being conducive to crime.  400 words

2. What is the “school to prison pipeline” and how can this trend be reversed? 300 words

3. Strain Theory according to your text is the pressure to achieve socially determined goals. Do you think the “American Dream” is possible for everyone? Why or why not? 400 words

4. Analyze ‘relative deprivation’ and its connection to criminal activities. 350 words

5. What are the techniques of neutralization? Give examples of how a juvenile may apply these techniques when apprehended. 350 words

6. According to the FBI, there are now more than 33,000 violent street gangs in the United States. Using scholarly research, identify possible social and political reasons for the growth of these subcultures. 350 words

7. What are the policy implications of Social Structure Theory? 300 words

8. Do you believe that poverty and social injustice are caused by crime or does crime cause poverty and social injustice? Defend your answer with examples. 400 words


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Criminal law Theories Student name University name Date Criminal law theories 1. Explain “Broken Window Theory” and give examples from your professional or personal life where you have seen examples of these areas being conducive to crime. The “broken window theory” is a theory that if small problems in an area are fixed such as broken windows in a relatively short period of time it will stop larger problems from occurring which keeps crime down and people from moving to other areas. It has been said that there is a connection between small crimes and serious crimes. Once an area appears to be run down it may be easier for the criminal element to come in and take over thus pushing the good and decent people out. (1) Research has been mixed as to whether or not there is a correlation between small crimes leads to big crimes. When I looked at this topic online I found articles saying that the research supports this theory and others saying that it does not. I would have to come down somewhere in the middle. Yes I believe that if residents, police and code enforcers take an interest in a rundown area of town and work to clean it up there might be fewer calls to police but I am not necessarily sure that smaller crimes lead to larger ones. I believe that the morals of an area have more to do with crime than small leads to large. If people in a neighborhood no longer care what goes on around them that is what leads to crime. If a person can sell drugs on a street corner and no one cares or calls police this is what causes crime. The criminals realize that if they commit crimes of whatever degree and no one cares or tries to stop them then they will continue to commit them. Police and legislatures have tried to work together to pass laws that make it harder for criminals in these areas to conduct business and live without being harassed. These laws have worked in areas where they are enforced but everyone has to take an interest in these rundown areas in order for the problems to be corrected. In major cities, such as D.C., there are areas that “good people” stay out of. These are areas like South East that have fallen on hard times, have high gang rates, people just hanging on the corner, vandalism and a general look of disorder. It may have started with small crimes but now there are large crimes going on daily such as murder, drugs and gang crimes. These criminals moved in more than likely when it became clear that none of the residents cared what went on around them. The residents in these areas who are not criminals or wish to have a better life move out and leave building abandoned and in disrepair. This gives those who wish to commit crimes places to hind and commit their crimes. Laws have been passed in recent years to make it a crime to loiter on the corner as a way to keep gangs from gathering or others from selling drugs which have worked when they are enforced by the police. I believe until an area’s residents start to care about where they live no amount of criminal law protection can revitalize such an area. Joel Samaha, Criminal Law, 424 (10th ed. 2011). 2. What is the “school to prison pipeline” and how can this trend be reversed? 300 words School to prison pipeline is the regular channeling of underprivileged youth out of schools into the criminal justice system (Mallett, 2015). In the early 1980s, federal policies were enacted by President Reagan to help make schools safe learning environments by keeping drugs, weapons, and gang-related activity out of them. During the Clinton administration, the Gun-Free Schools Act was agreed in 1994 and needed all schools to expel any student carrying a gun while on school property. Federal funding was tied to the State’s compliance with this Act and required schools to adopt a Zero Tolerance (ZT) policy on firearms. Following the Columbine School massacre in Colorado, which claimed the lives of 13 people and injured 24 additional students, and a number of other school shootings, these policies gained momentum after public outcry for safer schools. In 2001, President Bush enacted No Child Left behind (NCLB) policies, which required that schools refer to all violations of ZT policies to the juvenile justice system. It is vital for the welfare of our country as a whole to rethink the policies that have led to an increasing number of students being funneled into the STPP. Research has demonstrated educators as the ones who inhibit students from joining the pipeline through coming up with building a caring learning environment, applying positive behavioral approaches to prevent and respond to problem behavior and relationships of mutual trust (Wilson, 2014). Programs implemented in schools which help to train teachers in building positive environments for students can be very valuable in reversing the numbers of students referred to SROs. Increasing specialized subject matter acquaintance as well as the essential conveyance of that knowledge by specified guidelines, methods, strategies and processes are linked with better student impacts in schools (Houchins, Shippen, &Murphy, 2012). Also, availability of local community centers and year-round recreational programs give students additional outlets to help them work on their leadership skills. The whole of society can be expected to eliminate the pipeline. This would involve parents, teachers, libraries, service clubs, boosters, faith groups, youth development organizations and others that are in the position to openly support students and schools (Wilson, 2014). Mallett, C. A. (2015). The school-to-prison pipeline: A comprehensive asse...
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