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# VATI Pharmacology

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VATI Pharmacology

Question: 60 of 60

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A nurse is preparing to administer ampicillin/sulbactam 1.5 g via intermittent IV bolus. Available is ampicillin/sulbactam 1.5 g in 0.9% sodium chloride 100 mL to infuse over 30 min. The nurse should set the IV infusion pump to deliver how many mL/hr? (Round the answer to the nearest whole number. Use a leading zero if it applies. Do not use a trailing zero.)

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mL/hr

Follow these steps to calculate the infusion rate using the Ratio and Proportion method of calculation:

Step 1: What is the unit of measurement the nurse should calculate? mL/hr

Step 2: What is the volume the nurse should infuse? 100 mL

Step 3: What is the total infusion time? 30 min

Step 4: Should the nurse convert the units of measurement? Yes (min does not equal hr)

60 min

30 min

=

1 hr

X

X hr = 0.5 hr

Step 5: Set up an equation and solve for X.

Volume (mL)

X mL/hr

=

Time (hr)

100 mL

X mL/hr

=

0.5 hr

X mL/hr = 200 mL/hr

Step 6: Round if necessary.

Step 7: Determine whether the amount to administer makes sense. If the prescription reads ampicillin/sulbactam 1.5 g in 0.9% sodium chloride 100 mL to infuse over 30 min, it makes sense to administer 200 mL/hr. The nurse should set the IV pump to deliver ampicillin/sulbactam 1.5 g in 0.9% sodium chloride 100 mL at 200 mL/hr.

Follow these steps to calculate the infusion rate using the Desired Over Have method of calculation:

Step 1: What is the unit of measurement the nurse should calculate? mL/hr

Step 2: What is the volume the nurse should infuse? 100 mL

Step 3: What is the total infusion time? 30 min

Step 4: Should the nurse convert the units of measurement? Yes (min does not equal hr)

30 min × 1 hr

X hr

=

60 min

X hr = 0.5 hr

Step 5: Set up an equation and solve for X.

Volume (mL)

X mL/hr

=

Time (hr)

100 mL

X mL/hr

=

0.5 hr

X mL/hr = 200 mL/hr

Step 6: Round if necessary.

Step 7: Determine whether the amount to administer makes sense. If the prescription reads ampicillin/sulbactam 1.5 g in 0.9% sodium chloride 100 mL to infuse over 30 min, it makes sense to administer 200 mL/hr. The nurse should set the IV pump to deliver ampicillin/sulbactam 1.5 g in 0.9% sodium chloride 100 mL at 200 mL/hr.

Follow these steps to calculate the infusion rate using the Dimensional Analysis method of calculation:

Step 1: What is the unit of measurement the nurse should calculate? (Place the unit of measure being calculated on the left side of the equation.)

X mL/hr =

Step 2: Determine the ratio that contains the same unit as the unit being calculated. (Place the ratio on the right side of the equation, ensuring that the unit in the numerator matches the unit being calculated.)

100 mL

X mL/hr

=

30 min

Step 3: Place any remaining ratios that are relevant to the item on the right side of the equation along with any needed conversion factors to cancel out unwanted units of measurements.

100 mL

60 min

X mL/hr

=

×

30 min

1 hr

Step 4: Solve for X.

X mL/hr = 200 mL/hr

Step 5: Round if necessary.

Step 6: Determine whether the amount to administer makes sense. If the prescription reads ampicillin/sulbactam 1.5 g in 0.9% sodium chloride 100 mL to infuse over 30 min, it makes sense to administer 200 mL/hr. The nurse should set the IV pump to deliver ampicillin/sulbactam 1.5 g in 0.9% sodium chloride 100 mL at 200 mL/hr.

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Question: 59 of 60

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A nurse is caring for a client who is postmenopausal and has a prescription for raloxifene. The nurse should instruct the client that raloxifene is prescribed for which of the following reasons?

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To treat irritable bowel syndrome

Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator. In clients who are postmenopausal, it can reduce the risk for and treat osteoporosis and protect against breast cancer.

To reduce the risk for breast cancer

Raloxifene can lower the risk for breast cancer in postmenopausal clients who have a high risk for developing estrogen-receptive types of breast cancer. The medication also reduces the risk for and can treat postmenopausal osteoporosis.

To reduce the occurrence of hot flashes

Hot flashes are an adverse effect of raloxifene. Raloxifene reduces the occurrence of fractures related to osteoporosis and reduces the cholesterol level in clients who are postmenopausal.

To lower the risk of pulmonary embolism

Raloxifene can cause several significant cardiovascular and respiratory adverse effects, such as thromboembolism, stroke, peripheral edema, pneumonia, and the development of pulmonary emboli. Clients should not take this medication prior to periods of prolonged immobilization, such as surgery. A history of thromboembolic events is a contraindication for taking this medication.

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Question: 58 of 60

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A nurse is preparing to administer topotecan IV for a client who has metastatic ovarian cancer. Which of the following medications should the nurse expect to administer to control the adverse effects of topotecan?

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Insulin lispro via subcutaneous injection

Topotecan is a chemotherapy agent that prevents DNA replication. Topotecan causes several hematologic effects, including neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia; however, topotecan does not cause effects that require the administration of insulin, such as hyperglycemia.

Granisetron via transdermal patch

Granisetron is an antiemetic medication that helps prevent nausea and vomiting for clients who are receiving chemotherapy medications such as topotecan. The client should apply the transdermal patch to the upper outer arm up to 48 hr prior to receiving topotecan and continue to wear the patch until 24 hr after the completion of chemotherapy to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Magnesium sulfate via intermittent IV bolus

Topotecan is a chemotherapy agent that prevents DNA replication. Topotecan has several CNS adverse effects, such as headache and fatigue; however, topotecan does not cause effects that require the administration of magnesium sulfate, such as hypertension and hypomagnesemia.

Topotecan is a chemotherapy agent that prevents DNA replication. Although some chemotherapeutic agents, such as paclitaxel, require pretreatment with a corticosteroid, pretreatment is not necessary for a client who has a prescription for topotecan.

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Question: 57 of 60

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A nurse is providing teaching to an adolescent who has a prescription for cromolyn for the management of asthma. Which of the following statements by the adolescent indicates an understanding of the teaching?

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"I'll use this medication every day, even when I have no symptoms."

Cromolyn is a mast cell stabilizer that prevents exacerbations of chronic asthma. The adolescent should take it routinely, usually three or four times per day.

"I should use this medication as soon as I feel like I am going to start to wheeze."

Cromolyn is a prophylactic medication. It is not useful for treating an acute asthma attack. The adolescent should use a short-acting bronchodilator such as albuterol to treat an acute attack.

"I'll be sure to call the doctor if I don't feel better in a week."

Cromolyn requires regular use over a period of several weeks before achieving its full therapeutic effects. Although the adolescent might have relief within 2 weeks of initiating cromolyn use, it can take up to 6 weeks to feel the maximum benefits of this medication.

"When I know I'm going to play softball, I'll use the medication 2 hours before I start."

Cromolyn can reduce the risk for exercise-induced bronchospasm; however, the adolescent should take it within 1 hr prior to physical activity, ideally 10 to 15 min beforehand, for it to be effective.

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Question: 56 of 60

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A nurse is reviewing the laboratory report for a client who has been taking sodium polystyrene sulfonate. Which of the following findings indicates a therapeutic response to the medication?

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