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NR 507 Week 8 Final Exam / NR507 Final Exam(Version 4 Latest, 75 Q/A):Chamberlain College of Nursing

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NR507 Week 8 Final Exam / NR 507 Week 8 Final Exam (Version 4 , Latest): Advanced Pathophysiology: Chamberlain College of Nursing

Chamberlain NR 507 Final Exam / Chamberlain NR507 Final Exam (Version 4 , Latest): Advanced Pathophysiology

 

 

 

Question 1

 

What period follows depolarization of the myocardium and represents a period during which no new cardiac potential can be propagated?

 

  

Refractory

 

  

Threshold

 

  

Sinoatrial (SA)

 

  

Hyperpolarization

 

Question 2

 

What is the suggested mean blood pressure for an 8- to 9-year-old child?

 

  

106/58 mm Hg

 

  

104/55 mm Hg

 

  

112/62 mm Hg

 

  

121/70 mm Hg

 

Question 3

 

Which is an example of an endogenous antigen?

  

Yeast

 

 

  

Cancer cells

 

  

Fungus

 

  

Bacteria

 

Question 4

 

An infant has a crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur located between the second and third intercostal spaces along the left sternal border. A wide fixed splitting of the second heart sound is also found. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect?

  

Atrioventricular canal (AVC) defect

 

  

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

 

  

Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

 

 

  

Atrial septal defect (ASD)

 

 

Question 5

 

Chvostek and Trousseau signs indicate which electrolyte imbalance?

 

  

Hypocalcemia

 

  

Hypercalcemia

 

  

Hyperkalemia

 

  

Hypokalemia

 

Question 6

 

How does chest wall compliance in an infant differ from that of an adult?

  

An adult’s chest wall compliance is the same as an infant’s.

 

  

An adult’s chest wall compliance is dissimilar to that of an infant’s.

 

 

  

An adult’s chest wall compliance is lower than an infant’s.

 

  

An adult’s chest wall compliance is higher than an infant’s.

 

Question 7

 

What is the most commonly reported symptom of cancer treatment?

  

Hair loss

 

  

Nausea

 

  

Weight loss

 

 

  

Fatigue

 

Question 8

 

At birth, which statement is true?

 

  

Gas exchange shifts from the placenta to the lung.

 

  

Systemic resistance and pulmonary resistance fall.

 

  

Systemic resistance and pulmonary resistance rise.

 

  

Systemic resistance falls and pulmonary resistance rises.

 

 

Question 9

What is the treatment of choice for pernicious anemia (PA)?

  

Vitamin B12 by injection

  

Cyanocobalamin by oral intake

  

Folate by oral intake

 

  

Ferrous fumarate by Z-track injection

 

Question 10

 

Which disease is an example of a rickettsial infection?

  

Cholera

 

 

  

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

 

  

Sleeping sickness

 

  

Candida

 

Question 11

 

Which statement is true regarding maternal antibodies provided to the neonate?

 

 

The antibodies enter into the fetal circulation by means of active transport.

  

The antibodies are transferred to the fetus via the lymphatic system.

 

 

The antibodies reach protective levels after approximately 6 months of age.

  

The antibodies are directly related to the mother’s nutritional intake.

 

 

 

 

 

Question 12

 

Which statement is true regarding pain and cancer?

  

Pain is primarily a result of pressure caused by the tumor.

 

 

  

Pain is generally associated with late-stage cancer.

 

  

Pain indicates the metastasis of a cancer.

 

  

Pain is usually the initial symptom of cancer.

 

Question 13

 

During an infection, why do lymph nodes enlarge and become tender?

  

The nodes fill with purulent exudate.

 

 

  

B lymphocytes proliferate.

 

  

The nodes are not properly functioning.

 

  

The nodes are inflamed.

 

 

Question 14

 

What is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide?

  

Starvation

 

  

Cardiovascular disease

 

 

  

Infectious disease

 

  

Traumatic injury

 

Question 15

 

Which renal change is found in older adults?

  

Sharp decline in glomerular filtration rate

 

  

Decrease in urine output

 

  

Sharp decline in renal blood flow

 

 

  

Decrease in the number of nephrons

 

Question 16

 

After sexual transmission of HIV, a person can be infected yet seronegative for how many months?

  

24 to 36

 

  

18 to 20

 

 

  

6 to 14

 

  

1 to 2

 

Question 17

 

Which organism is responsible for the development of syphilis?

  

Neisseria syphilis

 

  

Treponema pallidum

  

Chlamydia trachomatis

  

Haemophilusducreyi

 

Question 18

 

The common hay fever allergy is expressed through a reaction that is mediated by which class of immunoglobulins?

 

  

IgE

 

  

IgG

 

  

T cells

 

  

IgM

 

 

Question 19

 

Blood cells that differentiate into macrophages are known as:

  

Neutrophils

 

  

Basophils

 

  

Eosinophils

 

 

  

Monocytes

 

Question 20

 

In which structure does B lymphocytes mature and undergo changes that commit them to becoming B cells?

  

Spleen

 

  

Regional lymph nodes

 

  

Thymus gland

 

 

  

Bone marrow

 

Question 21

 

Hemophilia B is caused by a deficiency of which clotting factor?

  

V

 

 

  

IX

 

  

X

 

  

VIII

 

Question 22

 

Which of the following causes condylomataacuminata or genital warts?

 

  

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

 

  

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)

 

  

Chlamydia

 

  

Adenovirus

 

Question 23

 

Exhaustion occurs if stress continues when which stage of the general adaptation syndrome is not successful?

  

Alarm

 

 

  

Adaptation

 

  

Flight or fight

 

  

Arousal

 

Question 24

 

Which chamber of the heart endures the highest pressures?

 

  

Left ventricle

 

  

Left atrium

 

  

Right ventricle

 

  

Right atrium

 

Question 25

 

Which glycoprotein protects against urolithiasis and is a ligand for lymphokines?

 

  

Uromodulin

 

  

Urodilatin

 

  

Cystatin

 

  

Nephrin

 

 

Question 26

 

Having ejected a mature ovum, the ovarian follicle develops into a(n):

  

Functional scar

 

  

Thecal follicle

 

  

Atretic follicle

 

 

  

Corpus luteum

 

Question 27

 

The most critical aspect in correctly diagnosing a seizure disorder and establishing its cause is:

 

  

Health history

 

  

Computed tomographic (CT) scan

 

  

Skull x-ray studies

 

  

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis

 

Question 28

 

Which serum laboratory test is elevated in all forms of osteogenesis imperfecta?

 

  

Alkaline phosphatase

 

  

Calcium

 

  

Total protein

 

  

Phosphorus

 

Question 29

 

How does the release (increase) of epinephrine raise body temperature?

  

It increases and strengthens the heart rate.

 

  

The release of epinephrine causes shivering.

 

 

  

It raises the metabolic rate.

 

  

It affects muscle tone.

 

Question 30

 

Clinical manifestations that include irregular or heavy bleeding, the passage of large clots, and the depletion of iron stores support which diagnosis?

  

Premenstrual syndrome

 

 

  

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

 

  

Primary dysmenorrhea

 

  

Polycystic ovary syndrome

 

Question 31

 

What happens to the vagina’s lining at puberty?

  

It becomes thinner.

 

 

  

It becomes thicker.

 

  

It assumes a neutral pH.

 

  

It undergoes atrophy.

 

Question 32

 

Why is prolonged diarrhea more severe in children than it is in adults?

  

Children have diarrhea more often than adults.

 

  

Less water is absorbed from the colon in children.

 

 

  

Fluid reserves are smaller in children.

 

  

Children have a higher fluid volume intake.

 

Question 33

 

The two most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes are:

  

Autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen associations

 

  

HLA associations and positive family history

 

  

Autoantibodies and obesity

 

 

  

Obesity and positive family history

 

Question 34

 

What is the leading cause of infertility in women?

 

  

Polycystic ovary syndrome

 

  

Endometriosis

 

  

Pelvic inflammatory disease

 

  

Salpingitis

 

Question 35

 

Adoption studies have shown that the offspring of an alcoholic parent when raised by nonalcoholic parents have what amount of an increased risk of developing alcoholism?

  

Tenfold

 

 

  

Fourfold

 

  

Threefold

 

  

Twofold

 

Question 36

 

Which structure attaches skeletal muscle to bone?

  

Ligament

 

 

  

Tendon

 

  

Bursa

 

  

Mesentery

 

Question 37

 

Which term is used to describe an intestinal obstruction caused by the invagination of the ileum into the cecum and part of the ascending colon by collapsing through the ileocecal valve?

  

Volvulus

 

 

  

Intussusception

 

  

Congenital aganglionic megacolon

 

  

Malrotation

 

Question 38

 

The tear in a ligament is referred to as a:

  

Disunion

 

  

Fracture

 

 

  

Sprain

 

  

Strain

 

Question 39

 

Which dyskinesia involves involuntary movements of the face, trunk, and extremities?

  

Hyperkinesia

 

  

Paroxysmal

 

 

  

Tardive

 

  

Cardive

 

Question 40

 

Which of the following is a lipid-soluble hormone?

  

Growth hormone

 

  

Oxytocin

 

  

Epinephrine

 

 

  

Cortisol

 

Question 41

 

It is true that myasthenia gravis:

  

Is an acute autoimmune disease.

 

 

  

Causes muscle weakness.

 

  

May result in adrenergic crisis.

 

  

Affects the nerve roots.

 

Question 42

 

What effect does hyperphosphatemia have on other electrolytes?

  

Increases serum magnesium.

 

 

  

Decreases serum calcium.

 

  

Increases serum calcium.

 

  

Decreases serum magnesium.

 

Question 43

 

An amniocentesis indicates a neural tube defect when an increase in which protein is evident?

  

Embryonic

 

  

Chorionic

 

 

  

Alpha fetoprotein

 

  

Amniotic

 

Question 44

 

Which pancreatic enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of carbohydrates?

  

Chymotrypsin

 

  

Trypsin

 

 

  

Amylase

 

  

Lipase

 

Question 45

 

What part of the brain provides the emotional response to pain?

  

Hypothalamus

 

  

Thalamus

 

 

  

Limbic system

 

  

Parietal lobe

 

Question 46

 

Which type of ion directly controls the contraction of muscles?

 

  

Calcium

 

  

Magnesium

 

  

Potassium

 

  

Sodium

 

Question 47

 

The secretion of adrenocorticotropic-stimulating hormone (ACTH) will result in the increased level of which hormone?

 

  

Cortisol.

 

  

Insulin

 

  

Thyroxine

 

  

Antidiuretic hormone

 

Question 48

 

In 95% of children of delayed puberty, the problem is caused by:

  

Disruption of the pituitary

 

 

  

Physiologic hormonal delays

 

  

Deficit in estrogen or testosterone

 

  

Disruption in the hypothalamus

 

Question 49

 

Bacteria gain access to the female urinary tract by which means?

  

Systemic blood that is filtered through the kidney

 

 

  

Bacteria ascending the urethra into the bladder

 

  

Bacteria traveling from the lymph adjacent to the bladder and kidneys

 

  

Colonization of the bladder when urine is static

 

Question 50

 

Neurofibrillary tangles characterize which neurologic disorder?

  

Dementia syndrome

 

  

Delirium

 

 

  

Alzheimer disease

 

  

Parkinson disease

 

Question 51

 

Which change is a result of puberty and defends the vagina from infection?

  

Estrogen levels are low.

 

  

The pH stabilizes between 7 and 8.

 

 

  

Vaginal pH becomes more acidic.

 

  

A thin squamous epithelial lining develops.

 

Question 52

 

The data reporting that sickle cell disease affects approximately 1 in 600 American blacks is an example of which concept?

  

Incidence

 

  

Ratio

 

  

Risk

 

 

  

Prevalence

 

Question 53

 

Which clinical manifestations would be expected for a child who has complete trisomy of the twenty-first chromosome?

 

Widely spaced nipples, reduced carrying angle at the elbow, and sparse body hair

  

High-pitched voice, tall stature, gynecomastia, and an IQ of 60 to 90

 

 

Circumoral cyanosis, edema of the feet, short stature, and mental slowness

 

 

Question 54

 

Which assessment finding characterizes Osgood-Schlatter disease?

 

  

Tendinitis of the anterior patellar tendon

 

  

Bursitis of the subscapular bursa in the glenohumeral joint

 

  

Inflammation of the anterior cruciate ligament

 

  

Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

 

Question 55

 

Dilation of the ipsilateral pupil, following uncal herniation, is the result of pressure on which cranial nerve (CN)?

  

Abducens (CN VI)

 

  

Trochlear (CN IV)

 

  

Optic (CN I)

 

 

  

Oculomotor (CN III)

 

Question 56

 

What directly causes ovulation during the menstrual cycle?

  

Gradual decrease in estrogen levels

 

  

Gradual increase in estrogen levels

 

 

  

Sudden increase of LH

 

  

Sharp rise in progesterone levels

 

Question 57

 

Which clinical manifestations are associated with fibromyalgia?

 

  

Sensitivity at tender points and profound fatigue

 

  

Hot, tender, and edematous muscle groups bilaterally

 

  

Fasciculations of the upper and lower extremity muscles

 

  

Exercise intolerance and painful muscle cramps

 

Question 58

 

Which would be considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia?

  

Lack of social interaction

 

  

Blunted affect

 

 

  

Auditory hallucinations

 

  

Poverty of speech

 

Question 59

 

What anchors articular cartilage to the underlying bone?

 

  

Collagen fibers

 

  

Elastin fibers

 

  

Sharpey fibers

 

  

Glycoproteins

 

Question 60

 

At 2 or 3 weeks of age, an infant who has been well fed and has gained weight begins to vomit for no apparent reason. The vomiting gradually becomes more forceful. These symptoms may be indicative of which disorder?

 

  

Pyloric stenosis

 

  

Galactosemia

 

  

Congenital aganglionic megacolon

 

  

Esophageal atresia

 

Question 61

 

Pinkeye is characterized by inflammation of which structure?

  

Sebaceous glands

 

  

Eyelids

 

  

Meibomian glands

 

 

  

Conjunctiva

 

Question 62

 

The common property among the three types of medications used to treat depression is that they:

  

Decrease neurotransmitter levels in the postsynapse.

 

 

  

Increase neurotransmitter levels within the synapse.

 

  

Decrease neurotransmitter levels within the synapse.

 

  

Increase neurotransmitter levels in the presynapse.

 

Question 63

 

What term is used to identify the calcium crystals that are associated with chronic gout?

  

Spurs

 

  

Stones

 

  

Nodes

 

 

  

Tophi

 

Question 64

 

The presence of a zygote having one chromosome with the normal complement of genes and one with a missing gene is characteristic of which genetic disorder?

 

  

Cri du chat

 

  

Down syndrome

 

  

Klinefelter syndrome

 

  

Turner syndrome

 

Question 65

 

Regarding type 2 diabetes, obesity is considered to be what type of risk?

  

Relative

 

 

  

Modifiable

 

  

Empirical

 

  

Genetic

 

Question 66

 

Which hormone stimulates gonads to produce both male and female hormones?

  

Estrogen

 

 

  

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

 

  

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

 

  

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

 

Question 67

 

Which condition poses the highest risk for a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)?

  

Smoking

 

 

  

Hypertension

 

  

Polycythemia

 

  

Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus

 

Question 68

 

When insulin binds its receptors on muscle cells, an increase in glucose uptake by the muscle cells is the result. This is an example of what type of effect by a hormone?

  

Synergistic

 

 

  

Direct

 

  

Permissive

 

  

Pharmacologic

 

Question 69

 

Which four-step process correctly describes muscle contraction?

 

  

Excitation, coupling, contraction, relaxation

 

  

Coupling, contraction, relaxation, excitation

 

  

Relaxation, excitation, coupling, contraction

 

  

Contraction, relaxation, excitation, coupling

 

Question 70

 

Alterations in which part of the brain are linked to hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorders associated with schizophrenia?

  

Hypothalamus

 

  

Limbic system

 

 

  

Temporal lobe

 

  

Parietal lobe

 

.
Question 71

 

Which person is at the greatest risk for developing delirium?

  

A depressed Hispanic woman

 

  

A man diagnosed with schizophrenia

 

An individual with diabetes celebrating a 70th birthday

 

An individual on the second day after hip replacement

 

Question 72

 

Aldosterone directly increases the reabsorption of:

  

Calcium

 

  

Water

 

 

  

Sodium

 

  

Magnesium

 

Question 73

 

What term is used to identify the condition that exists when the urethral meatus is located on the undersurface of the penis?

  

Hyperspadias

 

 

  

Hypospadias

 

  

Chordee

 

  

Epispadias

 

Question 74

 

Considering the mediating factors of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), which medication may be used either continually or only during the menstrual period as a treatment for the condition?

 

  

SSRIs

 

  

Estrogen

 

  

NSAIDs

 

  

Progesterone

 

Question 75

 

A criterion for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a period of excessive worrying that lasts for at least how many months?

  

12

 

  

3

 

  

9

 

 

  

6

 

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