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Liberty University ENGL 101 Mindtap 6 assignment complete solutions correct answers updated

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Liberty University ENGL 101 Mindtap 6 assignment complete solutions correct answers updated

 

1.     Organizing a Paragraph Using Time, Space, or Importance

 

To cohere means “to hold together.” A paragraph coheres when the arrangement of sentences is in a clear, logical order and when the sentences all relate to one another. You can achieve coherence by ordering ideas using order of time, order of space, or order of importance.

To organize ideas in order of importance means to put them in order from most important to least important or from least important to most important. The following paragraph contains ideas arranged in order of importance.

Before running a marathon, a runner must carefully prepare for the race. One important pre-race activity is picking up the race packet, which contains a bib with the runner's number printed on it. Typically, runners without bibs aren't allowed to participate, so it's essential to obtain this beforehand. An even more important pre-race activity is eating a large meal the night before the marathon. Carbohydrates, such as pasta and bread, and proteins, like chicken, will provide much-needed energy during the 26.2 mile run. Finally, the most important way to prepare for a marathon is to get a great night of sleep the night before the race. The mental and physical challenges of running require a well-rested body and mind.

In the paragraph, the writer organizes the preparations for a marathon from least to most important. The writer begins with logistical details of preparation and ends with the final and most important preparation: a good night's sleep. The writer uses transitional expressions such as "an even more important" and "finally, the most important" to help the reader move from one detail to the next. The following box lists common transitional expressions that show order of importance.

 

Directions: A topic sentence appears in the first row of the table below, but the sentences that follow it are not in proper paragraph order. Choose the best order by selecting the correct number for each sentence.

Important: The writer describes the photo of Georgia O'Keeffe from front to back.

 

Version A

Topic Sentence: In this photograph, Georgia O'Keeffe, her painting, and the desert setting appear in harmony with one another.

She holds a large canvas of a desert arch with a yellow sky beaming through its hollow middle; this yellow sets off O'Keeffe's profile, making her look as if she is part of the painting that she created.

Looking first at the front of the photo, O'Keeffe's dark dress contrasts her skin, which has been tanned to almost the same hue as the reddish mesa behind her.

Behind O'Keeffe and her painting, a pale red-colored mesa rises against the blue sky.

Taken together, this photo shows O'Keeffe, her painting, and the desert as distinct elements given life from the same patterns and colors.

 

How does this paragraph order its ideas?

 

Version B

Topic Sentence: Georgia O'Keeffe, the American painter, spent a lifetime learning and exploring art.

After charcoal, O'Keeffe, now a professional artist in New York, began painting close-ups of silky, bright flowers.

Early in her career as an art student in Chicago, O'Keeffe used rough charcoal on smooth white paper for her drawings.

At the end of her career in 1984, O'Keeffe was a widely recognized artist whose work remains internationally known and praised.

All in all, O'Keeffe's works from all of her artistic stages show an artist who was willing to explore new mediums.

 

How does this paragraph order its ideas?

 

Version C

Topic Sentence: One of the greatest American artists of the twentieth century, Georgia O'Keeffe (1887–1986), spent a lifetime learning and exploring art.

After her formal education as an artist, O'Keeffe had her first show in New York in 1916; in the following decade, O'Keeffe began painting larger close-ups of flowers, a style for which she is widely recognized.

Early on in her schooling, O'Keeffe's teachers recognized her talent and encouraged her to attend the Art Institute of Chicago, where she mastered the traditional principles of art making.

During the following years (1930s–1950s), O'Keeffe continued to create her own style, focusing on the stark beauty of the New Mexico desert.

By the end of her career in the 1980s, O'Keeffe had proven herself an innovative master of a variety of artistic styles.

 

How does this paragraph order its ideas?

 

2.     Connecting Sentences Using Transitions

 

Transitional words and phrases tell readers how one idea relates to another. Using words and phrases such as howeverfor exampleas a result, and also helps readers to understand your meaning.

Transitional words and phrases are used...

To give more information

additionally, also, as well, first of all (second of all, and so on), for one thing, furthermore, in addition, moreover, next, then

To give an example

for example, for instance, in particular, one such, specifically

To show similarity or agreement

also, as well, equally, likewise, similarly

To show difference or contradiction

although, but, however, in contrast, on the other hand

To show cause or effect

and so, as a result, because, consequently, since, so, therefore

To qualify

maybe, perhaps

 

To show placement

above, across from, below, beside, here, in, next to, outside

To show a temporal (time) relationship

after a while, afterward, at last, at present, briefly, currently, eventually, finally, first (second, third, and so on), gradually, immediately, in the future, later, meanwhile, next, now, recently, soon, suddenly, then

To show importance or emphasis

above all, especially, finally, first, in fact, least, less, most, most importantly, next

To summarize or conclude

all in all, finally, in conclusion, in other words, lastly, to conclude

 

Directions: In each of the blanks below, select the transitional expression from the dropdown menu to indicate a logical relationship between the two sentences it connects. Then answer the question that follows.

 

Version A

In these mountains, there isn't much oxygen above 11,000 feet.    , trees and bushes aren't able to grow near the peaks.

 

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence?

 

Wearing a seat belt can help you avoid paying a high fine for breaking the law.       , wearing a seat belt can save your life.

 

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence?

 

Version B

In many ways, The Great Gatsby is a novel about the greed and selfishness of the wealthiest Americans during the Jazz Age.       , it offers readers a glimpse of their irresponsible behavior.

 

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence?

 

Learning disabilities can cause students to experience a variety of challenges.       , some students have difficulty focusing during class.

 

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence?

 

Version C

First, pull the damaged bike tube from the tire.       , find and remove the sharp object that punctured the tire tube. Finally, put a new tube in between the tire and the rim.

 

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence?

 

Everyone wanted to go to Lake Tahoe for the weekend.        , no one had enough gas money to go.

 

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence?

 

3.     Repeating Key Words and Using Synonyms

 

One effective way to create coherence within a paragraph is to repeat key words throughout the paragraph. This helps make the focus of the paragraph clear to the reader. You can use synonyms, or words that have a similar meaning, to avoid using key words too much.

 

Directions: Read the passage below and then answer the questions that follow.

 

Version A

 

Repeating the Story of the Titanic

¹The sinking of the world’s most famous ship in 1912 generated three waves of Titanic mania. ²The first wave happened immediately after the disaster, with newsreels, books, poems, and songs telling stories of suffering and bravery. ³The mid-1950s, in the midst of the cold war, is generally considered to represent the second wave of Titanic fever, when a mist of nostalgia hung over the disaster—a longing for a society in which people behaved according to a strict set of rules. ⁴Thirty years later, in 1985, oceanographer Robert Ballard and French explorer Jean-Louis Michel discovered the wreckage of the Titanic lying roughly two and a half miles below the ocean’s surface. ⁵The world went into a Titanic frenzy again, with the third wave becoming even more intense than those before. ⁶This was followed in 1997 by the release of James Cameron’s blockbuster film, Titanic, starring Kate Winslet and Leonardo DiCaprio as two lovers from vastly different backgrounds who meet on board the doomed ship, which has made over $2 billion worldwide and is one of the most successful movies of all time. ⁷Indeed, the disaster has become such a widely recognized story that the event almost seems to repeat itself on a never-ending loop.

Source: Wilson, Andrew. “Why the Titanic Still Fascinates Us.” Smithsonian.com, www.smithsonianmag.com/history/why-the-titanic-still-fascinates-us.

 

What is the most important key word in this paragraph?

 

Which sentences in the paragraph repeat the key word to create coherence? Check all that apply.

 

Which of the following does the paragraph use as a synonym for the key word “mania”?

 

Version B

 

The Power of Music

¹Many people think of music as a source of entertainment, while others feel it’s just a tune playing in the background. ²However, active listening of anything from a Mozart symphony to a Beatles song has an enormous, positive effect on the brain. ³Engagement with music can improve memory and focus, especially in children, by stimulating the brain. ⁴It also engages parts of the brain that control our emotions. ⁵When you listen to music, the brain releases dopamine, prolactin, and serotonin, which are chemicals that boost your mood. ⁶As a result, people tend to feel an increase in energy and a decrease in stress levels. ⁷Finally, tuning out and turning on your tunes can shift your brain waves from beta to more relaxed alpha and theta states.

Source: ”Music and Health: 11 Ways Playing and Listening to Music Help Both Body and Mind." Huffington Post. Huffington Post, 11 April 2011. Web. 23 Oct. 2012.

 

What is the most important key word in this paragraph?

 

Which sentences in the paragraph repeat the key word to create coherence? Check all that apply.

 

Which of the following does the paragraph use as a synonym for the key word “music”?

 

Version C

 

Has Gender Equality Been Achieved?

¹For many Americans, equality between the genders is a shared, if not given, value. ²Nevertheless, the statistics show that Americans differ on whether enough has been done to achieve balanced opportunities between men and women. ³A greater number of women than men believe that equality has not been achieved, and the data suggest women are right. ⁴Equality has not been achieved in the workplace, where a women makes 77 cents for every dollar a man makes according to the Department of Labor statistics. ⁵Also, the median annual earning for full-time, year-round women workers in 2010 was $36,931 compared with men's $47,715. ⁶In addition to the workplace, women also have less of a voice in government. ⁷Women constitute about 51% of the population, but they hold only 17% of the seats in Congress, which suggests that balance has not yet been achieved in this sphere either.

Source: Shannon, Victoria. "Equal Rights for Women? Survey Says: Yes, but..." The New York Times, 1 July 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/07/01/world/01iht-poll.html?_r=0.

 

What is the most important key word in this paragraph?

 

Which sentences in the paragraph repeat the key word to create coherence? Check all that apply.

 

Which of the following does the paragraph use as a synonym for the key word “equality”?

 

4.     Replacing Proper Nouns with Pronouns

 

Definition: Nouns are people, places, and things. Pronouns are words that can take the place of nouns. Here are three examples:

The noun Allison could be replaced by the pronoun she.

The noun coffee mug could be replaced by the pronoun it.

The nouns girls and boys could be replaced by the pronoun they.

You can use them to connect sentences and avoid unnecessary repetition.

 

Directions: Read each passage and then select the correct answer to the question that follows.

 

Version A

 

¹The uses of the Clydesdale breed of horses have changed significantly in the past century. ²In the past, Clydesdales were never ridden for sport or leisure; now, however, such activity is commonplace. ³Clydesdales often generate publicity for breweries or other businesses by pulling carts with company logos on them. ⁴Because automated farm machinery is now widespread, Clydesdales no longer pull ploughs or other heavy farm equipment. ⁵For example, to better protect delicate ecosystems, the logging industry has recently begun using Clydesdales in timber extraction.

 

In which of the following sentences would it not make sense to replace the proper noun Clydesdales with the pronoun they? Check all that apply.

 

Version B

 

¹At the 2012 London Olympics, Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt proved to be both a winner and a showman. ²When introduced to the Olympic Stadium crowd, Mr. Bolt gave a stiff-wristed royal wave. ³Mr. Bolt wore a ball cap turned backward and smiled for the cameras when stepping out onto the track for the 200-meter sprint. ⁴Mr. Bolt avenged his losses to teammate Yohan Blake from Jamaica's Olympic trials, winning the London 200-meter race in 19.32 seconds despite relaxing over the last 15 meters and putting his left index finger to his lips as if to quiet skeptics who predicted he would falter under Olympic pressure. ⁵With teammates Blake and Warren Weir finishing second and third, Mr. Bolt declared himself to be a living legend after becoming the first man ever to win the 100- and 200-meter titles in successive Olympics.

 

In which of the following sentences would it not make sense to replace the proper noun Mr. Bolt with the pronoun he? Check all that apply.

 

Version C

 

¹Landed on the surface of Mars in August 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory is equipped with several fascinating science instruments. ²For example, an imaging device on the Mars Science Laboratory takes extreme close-up pictures of rocks and soil. ³The Mars Science Laboratory also has an instrument that detects radiation and helps assess the planet’s ability to support life. ⁴The Mars Science Laboratory’s most interesting instrument is a laser that vaporizes Martian rocks so their content can be analyzed.

 

In which of the following sentences would it not make sense to replace the proper noun Mars Science Laboratory with the pronoun it? Check all that apply.

 

5.     Ensuring Paragraph Unity: Topic Sentences

 

Version A

 

Which of the following is a topic sentence that can be supported with reasons, details, examples, and explanations?

 

One way to make sure you have a unified paragraph is to write a clear topic sentence that states the subject of the paragraph and the point you want to make about it.

 

Read the following passage and identify the topic sentence. (Hint: It’s not always the first sentence.)

 

It is not always a bad thing to “miss the boat.” Many influential people missed the Titanic, which began and ended its doomed voyage in 1912. For example, J. Pierpont Morgan, the famous banker and founder of General Electric and U.S. Steel, had arranged a personal suite and his own private promenade deck on the ship. It sailed without him, though, because Morgan decided to continue his vacation in France instead of returning to the United States. As a result, the “Napoleon of Wall Street” avoided a watery death. Another famous person who missed the boat was Alfred Vanderbilt, who was an heir to the Vanderbilt shipping and railroad empire. Vanderbilt cancelled his voyage on the Titanic at the last minute to lengthen his European vacation. Unlike J. P. Morgan though, Vanderbilt seems to have been fated to be lost at sea; three years after missing one sinking ship, he died on another—the Lusitania. Coincidentally, the famous inventor Guglielmo Marconi also missed the Titanic, and he was aboard the Lusitania when it went down, but he survived.

Source: Daugherty, Greg. “Seven Famous People Who Missed the Titanic.” Smithsonian, 1 Mar. 2012, www.smithsonianmag.com/history/seven-famous-people-who-missed-the-titanic-101902418/.

 

The topic sentence is:

 

Version B

Which of the following is a topic sentence that can be supported with reasons, details, examples, and explanations?

 

One way to make sure you have a unified paragraph is to write a clear topic sentence that states the subject of the paragraph and the point you want to make about it.

 

Read the following passage and identify the topic sentence. (Hint: It’s not always the first sentence.)

 

Many Americans believe in equality between the genders. However, the data suggest that equality has not been achieved. It has not been achieved in the workplace, where, according to the Department of Labor statistics, a women makes 77 cents for every dollar a man makes. Also, the median annual earning for full-time, year-round women workers in 2010 was $36,931 compared to men’s $47,715. In addition to the workplace, women also have less of a voice in government. Women constitute about 51% of the population, but they hold only 17% of the seats in Congress, which suggests that equality has not yet been achieved in this sphere either.

Source: Shannon, Victoria. “Equal Rights for Women? Survey Says: Yes, but . . . .” The New York Times, 1 July 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/07/01/world/01iht-poll.html?_r=0.

 

The topic sentence is:

 

Version C

Which of the following is a topic sentence that can be supported with reasons, details, examples, and explanations?

 

One way to make sure you have a unified paragraph is to write a clear topic sentence that states the subject of the paragraph and the point you want to make about it.

 

Read the following passage and identify the topic sentence. (Hint: It’s not always the first sentence.)

 

Many people think of music as a source of entertainment, while others feel it’s just a tune playing in the background. Active listening of anything from a Mozart symphony to a Beatles song has an enormous, positive effect on the brain. Engagement with music can improve memory and focus, especially in children, by stimulating the brain. It also engages parts of the brain that control our emotions. When you listen to music, the brain releases dopamine, prolactin, and serotonin, which are chemicals that boost your mood. As a result, people tend to feel an increase in energy and a decrease in stress levels. Finally, tuning out and turning on your tunes can shift your brain waves from beta to more relaxed alpha and theta states.

Source: Chan, Amanda L. “Music and Health: 11 Ways Playing and Listening to Music Help Both Body and Mind.” The Huffington Post, 15 June 2012, www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/09/music-and-health-11-ways-body-mind_n_1413241.html.

 

The topic sentence is:

 

6.     Ensuring Paragraph Unity: Support the Topic Sentence

 

Version A

Read the following topic sentence and then answer the question that follows.

Topic Sentence:

The uses of the Clydesdale breed of horse have changed significantly in the past century.

 

Which of the following sentences do not support the topic sentence? Check all that apply.

 

To be unified, the information in each paragraph must adequately explain, give examples, define, or in some other way support your topic sentence. Therefore, your essay should provide enough supporting information or evidence to back up your topic sentence. Some types of evidence include specific examples or details, personal experience, reference to research, facts, statistics, and testimony from authorities. Without such specific evidence, your reader will not accept your ideas. Also, it is important to remember that length alone does not provide adequate support. If a paragraph is filled with vague generalities or repetitious ideas, it might be long, but it doesn’t fully support the topic sentence.

 

Read the paragraphs and answer the questions that follow. The topic sentences appear in boldface.

 

Body Paragraph 1

Languages all over the world are vanishing; these endangered languages should be brought back to preserve our global linguistic diversity and cultural history. One endangered language that should be preserved for its unique complexity and historical importance is the Navajo language. Navajo is a tough language to learn and is hard to grasp. Without early exposure, most people cannot master it. The U.S. military used Navajo Native Americans in WWII because they were so difficult to understand. These Navajos became code talkers. This makes Navajo both a unique and historically important language that should be preserved.

 

Body Paragraph 1       support the topic sentence effectively.

 

Which revisions would include more supporting information or evidence? Check all that apply.

 

Body Paragraph 2

Moreover, it is not just the unique and complex language of Native Americans that should be preserved. Languages from remote corners of Europe are also dying off. For example, the Scot language is getting less use, and at times, is extinguished, which happened to the Scot language of Cromarty. So, this means that a unique and complex language is lost to us.

Body Paragraph 2       support the topic sentence effectively.

 

Which revisions would include more supporting information or evidence? Check all that apply.

 

Body Paragraph 3

Some speakers of endangered languages aren’t just trying to preserve them; they are also trying to revitalize these important parts of their heritage. For example, the last 25 speakers of Iquito, a language spoken in the Amazon Basin of Peru, are passing down their native tongue after centuries of pressure to assimilate to Spanish. These surviving Iquito speakers are aging—the youngest is 52 years old. Therefore, teaching the language to the next generation cannot wait. So, the indigenous speakers of Iquito and students from the University of Texas at Austin are now working together to preserve the language by creating a dictionary to document it and by teaching it through community classes. This is altering the fate of one of the few indigenous languages from the Amazon Basin still in existence.

Body Paragraph 3       support the topic sentence effectively.

 

Which revisions would include more supporting information or evidence? Check all that apply.

 

Version B

 

Read the following topic sentence and then answer the question that follows.

Topic Sentence:

At the 2012 London Olympics, Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt proved to be both a winner and a showman.

 

Which of the following sentences do not support the topic sentence? Check all that apply.

 

To be unified, the information in each paragraph must adequately explain, give examples, define, or in some other way support your topic sentence. Therefore, your essay should provide enough supporting information or evidence to back up your topic sentence. Some types of evidence include specific examples or details, personal experience, reference to research, facts, statistics, and testimony from authorities. Without such specific evidence, your reader will not accept your ideas. Also, it is important to remember that length alone does not provide adequate support. If a paragraph is filled with vague generalities or repetitious ideas, it might be long, but it doesn’t fully support the topic sentence.

 

Read the paragraphs and answer the questions that follow. The topic sentences appear in boldface.

 

Body Paragraph 1

DNA sequencing is on the verge of revolutionizing the diagnosis and treatment of diseases—a revolution that spurs many ethical questions. First, DNA sequencing is dramatically changing detection of diseases. Currently, the detection of disease happens after symptoms appear in the tissues, organ, or bone where it originates. But now, some medical researchers are looking toward our DNA.

 

Body Paragraph 1       support the topic sentence effectively.

 

Which revisions would include more supporting information or evidence? Check all that apply.

 

Body Paragraph 2

Although DNA sequencing offers people insight into future medical problems, it also can become a Pandora’s box. Should everyone really have access to knowledge of their future health problems? Many people want to know, but some doctors are reluctant. Doctors worry that people will find out things they might not want to face about their medical fate. Moreover, ethicists believe this could lead down a path where people face discrimination based on the information in their DNA sequence.

 

Body Paragraph 2       support the topic sentence effectively.

 

Which revisions would include more supporting information or evidence? Check all that apply.

 

Body Paragraph 3

However, despite the ethical questions surrounding DNA sequencing, people want it, and, in some cases, they have gotten it with beneficial results. According to an NPR survey, 81.45% of people would have their DNA sequenced if they could afford it. One family, the Wests, could afford DNA sequencing and became the first family to do so. John West, who is the former CEO of a sequencing technology company, explains, "We were interested in getting a look ahead as to what might be in our family’s medical future, and I think we found that it was useful in that regard." For example, the sequencing revealed that the Wests are prone to blood clots. Now, the Wests know to change their eating habits to avoid blood clots, including consuming more vitamin K.

 

Body Paragraph 3       support the topic sentence effectively.

 

Which revisions would include more supporting information or evidence? Check all that apply.

 

Version C

 

Read the following topic sentence and then answer the question that follows.

Topic Sentence:

The Mars Science Laboratory, which landed on the surface of Mars in August 2012, is equipped with several fascinating science instruments.

 

Which of the following sentences do not support the topic sentence? Check all that apply.

 

To be unified, the information in each paragraph must adequately explain, give examples, define, or in some other way support your topic sentence. Therefore, your essay should provide enough supporting information or evidence to back up your topic sentence. Some types of evidence include specific examples or details, personal experience, reference to research, facts, statistics, and testimony from authorities. Without such specific evidence, your reader will not accept your ideas. Also, it is important to remember that length alone does not provide adequate support. If a paragraph is filled with vague generalities or repetitious ideas, it might be long, but it doesn’t fully support the topic sentence.

 

Read the paragraphs and answer the questions that follow. The topic sentences appear in boldface.

 

Body Paragraph 1

Before changing your diet, you should make sure that you are switching to one based on nutritional research versus popular ideas. One common dieting myth is that some foods have "negative calories," meaning that digesting the food burns more calories than the food itself contains. In some magazines, I have seen women encouraged to eat such foods. These foods often don’t sound appetizing to eat. Some people eat these foods to lose weight; they think their bodies will use up a greater percentage of calories to digest these than their bodies would use to digest other foods. In fact, some people believe celery burns so many calories that they can actually get thinner by eating it, which must be too good to be true.

 

Body Paragraph 1       support the topic sentence effectively.

 

Which revisions would include more supporting information or evidence? Check all that apply.

 

Body Paragraph 2

Another common myth is that brown foods are better for you. In fact, there are a lot of foods that are brown because of food dye. So, brown foods won’t always make you lose weight. You must be eating the right kinds of brown foods to get the health benefits.

 

Body Paragraph 2       support the topic sentence effectively.

 

Which revisions would include more supporting information or evidence? Check all that apply.

 

Body Paragraph 3

Another common misconception is that cutting carbohydrates is the best way to lose weight. However, new research from the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests otherwise. The best type of diet is neither a low-fat diet nor low-carb diet, but instead a low-glycemic diet. A low–glycemic diet is one where 40% of calories come from carbohydrates, 40% come from fats, and 20% come from proteins. According to Dr. David Ludwig from Boston’s Children’s Hospital, "Our findings suggest that actually trying to restrict either carbs or fat is not the best way [to achieve long-term weight loss] and instead to focus on the quality of fats and the quality of carbs." For example, instead of going to a diet of all steak and bacon, medical researchers find that people should balance fiber-rich, natural carbohydrates, such as steel-cut oats, with healthy fats and proteins, such as nuts and olive oil. Based on my personal experience, the low-glycemic diet works. I tried a diet of quality fats, carbs, and proteins for six weeks. Unlike when I was on an all-protein diet, I found that the variety of foods helped me to stick with my new nutritional plan. This diet was, by far, the most successful in helping me meet my weight-loss goals.

 

Body Paragraph 3       support the topic sentence effectively.

 

Which revisions would include more supporting information or evidence? Check all that apply.

 

7.     Ensuring Paragraph Unity: Check That All Details Are Relevant

 

A unified paragraph contains only details and explanations that are relevant to the point made in the topic sentence.

 

Read the following paragraph and identify which sentences are not relevant to the topic sentence.

 

Version A

 

(1) Baking a cake relies on some complex chemical reactions to transform all the individual ingredients into something delicious to eat. (2) Flour, eggs, butter, one or more leavening agents, and some sort of flavoring, such as vanilla or chocolate, are all combined in a bowl and then baked in the oven. (3) Many people avoid eating eggs due to health considerations. (4) Chocolate is my favorite flavor. (5) Leavening is the process that makes air bubbles form; this helps the batter to rise when it is heated.

 

Which of the following sentences are not relevant to the topic sentence? Check all that apply.

 

Version B

 

(1) My town holds a 5K road race every year to raise funds for charity. (2) People pay to participate and the money is used to help families in need of assistance. (3) More than 5,000 people ran in the race this year. (4) I am on the track team at Hosmer High School. (5) My sister also runs track, but we don’t go to the same school.

 

Which of the following sentences are not relevant to the topic sentence? Check all that apply.

 

Version C

 

(1) Taking care of a vegetable garden takes a lot of time and money, and the results don’t always seem worth it. (2) I like pumpkins, but I didn’t have enough room to grow them. (3) I bought tomato, pepper, and zucchini plants for about $35. (4) I spent hours planting, watering, and weeding so I wouldn’t have to buy some of the things I like to eat. (5) I don’t eat eggplant, so I didn’t plant any of it. (6) My garden didn’t yield much; by the end of the summer I had three peppers, eight tomatoes, and two zucchinis. (7) I think I would have been better off going to the farmers market and spending $35 on vegetables there.

 

Which of the following sentences are not relevant to the topic sentence? Check all that apply.

 

8.     Ensuring Paragraph Unity: Check That the Details Are Logically Organized

 

To help keep your paragraph unified around one central idea, it’s important to present information clearly and in a logical order. Make sure to include a topic sentence with a main idea, which might be (1) your reason for presenting the topic—why you think it’s important or necessary for the readers to know it—or (2) an argument about the topic itself. Writers often organize body paragraphs in easily recognizable patterns that give readers a sense of logical movement and order. Three examples of common patterns of ordering sentences in a paragraph are order of time, order of space, and order of importance. A writer might arrange details chronologically (beginning with the first step or event and ending with the last step or event). This is order of time. If the subject of the paragraph is a physical object, a writer might choose order of space to describe the object from left to right, top to bottom, or inside to outside. If the writer chooses to start with the most critical details and move toward less essential information later, they are using order of importance.

Read the following paragraph. Then answer the questions

Version A

 

(1) Although the foreclosure crisis has been covered often by the media, many people are still unclear about how the foreclosure process works or how people threatened by foreclosure lose their homes. (2) The first misstep in the process involves the home purchase itself; specifically, buying a home beyond what the buyer can comfortably afford. (3) Some new homes include luxury features, such as granite countertops, hardwood floors, and landscaped gardens. (4) The second misstep involves the loan terms; eager buyers often become trapped by loans with changing interest rates that start out low and increase dramatically a few years later or loans with low monthly payments that require the entire loan amount to be paid as a “balloon payment” at the end of the loan term. (5) The next misstep involves a dramatic change in the homeowner’s financial situation—the homeowner is laid off from work, a family member develops a costly medical condition, or the homeowner gets called to active duty in the military and has not provided for keeping the mortgage payments going. (6) In such circumstances, a smart homeowner can usually seek assistance from lawyers or government and nonprofit agencies that provide advice for individuals facing a financial crisis. (7) However, the fourth misstep that leads to foreclosure is when homeowners postpone seeking assistance until their legal rights have passed, or they walk away from their homes without being able to keep any of their investment. (8) The personal financial crisis of the homeowner moves into the public legal system. (9) The creditor (the agency from which the homeowner borrowed money) demands immediate payment of the entire balance (which is impossible for the homeowner) and then files a lawsuit in a court located near the property. (10) If the homeowner does not file an answer to the creditor's lawsuit, then the court rewards the creditor with the property. (11) These four missteps that lead to foreclosure explain the often confusing process of how a buyer loses a home. (12) The home, now officially foreclosed, is sold under court supervision.

Source: “Steps That Advocates Can Take to Help Prevent Foreclosure.” National Consumer Law Center, May 2014, www.nclc.org/images/pdf/older_consumers/cc_steps_that_advocates_can_take_to_help_older_homeowners_prevent_foreclosure_may_2014.pdf.

 

What is the topic sentence of this paragraph?

 

Which of the following is also a suitable topic sentence for this paragraph? (Hint: Pick the sentence that best captures the main idea of the paragraph.)

 

Is this paragraph logically organized?

 

Which sentence does not clearly relate to and support the topic sentence?

 

How is the passage organized?

 

What is the purpose of this passage?

 

Which phases appear in the paragraph? Check all that apply.

 

Version B

 

(1) Establishing credit might feel overwhelming, but anyone can accomplish this goal by following a series of steps. (2) First, research why establishing credit is important. (3) Ask your family members or friends how their credit ratings have made an impact on everything from their interest rates on an auto or home loan, to getting a good job, to signing a lease on an apartment. (4) Now that you understand why credit is important, the second step is to open a savings account and a checking account in your name. (5) Your ability to withdraw, deposit, transfer, and save money shows you have financial responsibility, which is reflected in your credit report. (6) After establishing your bank accounts, the third step is to apply for a credit card. (7) Some department stores have coupons that allow you to save 20% on that day’s purchases if you get one of their credit cards. (8) The final step is to use your credit cards and bank accounts wisely. (9) You will establish good credit only if you make your credit card payments on time and don’t bounce checks. (10) If you do so, you will be on your way to having many great financial opportunities in the future.

Source: “Establishing or Rebuilding Credit.” National Foundation for Credit Counseling, www.nfcc.org/consumer-tools/consumer-tips/establishing-or-rebuilding-credit/. Accessed 30 May 2016.

 

Version C

 

(1) Many people pay high interest rates on car loans simply because they are unaware of the easy steps to refinance. (2) First, collect and organize your car documents. (3) You’ll need a copy of your current car loan; the age, make, and model of your vehicle; and the vehicle identification number (VIN). (4) The VIN can be found on the dashboard or in the registration paperwork. (5) Before the VIN was introduced, each manufacturer had a different system for numbering its cars. (6) Next, call your lender for the payoff amount and find out how long until the quote expires (usually five to ten days). (7) Then check your credit to make sure your new lender will receive the most accurate and up-to-date version of your credit report. (8) The fourth step is to shop for the best refinance loan offer and accept a new offer at a lower interest rate. (9) The fifth and final step is to make sure the original car lender has issued a notice stating that the loan was repaid in full. (10) By following these simple steps, a car owner can save hundreds of dollars each year.

Source: “How to Refinance a Car Loan.” ehow, www.ehow.com/how_2082486_refinance-car-loan.html. Accessed 6 July 2016.

 

 

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[Solved] Liberty University ENGL 101 Mindtap 6 assignment complete solutions correct answers updated

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Liberty University ENGL 101 Mindtap 6 assignment complete solutions correct answers updated 1. Organizing a Paragraph Using Time, Space, or Importance To cohere means “to hold together.” A paragraph coheres when the arrangement of sentences is in a clear, logical order and when the sentences all relate to one another. You can achieve coherence by ordering ideas using order of time, order of space, or order of importance. To organize ideas in order of importance means to put them in order from most important to least important or from least important to most important. The following paragraph contains ideas arranged in order of importance. Before running a marathon, a runner must carefully prepare for the race. One important pre-race activity is picking up the race packet, which contains a bib with the runner's number printed on it. Typically, runners without bibs aren't allowed to participate, so it's essential to obtain this beforehand. An even more important pre-race activity is eating a large meal the night before the marathon. Carbohydrates, such as pasta and bread, and proteins, like chicken, will provide much-needed energy during the 26.2 mile run. Finally, the most important way to prepare for a marathon is to get a great night of sleep the night before the race. The mental and physical challenges of running require a well-rested body and mind. In the paragraph, the writer organizes the preparations for a marathon from least to most important. The writer begins with logistical details of preparation and ends with the final and most important preparation: a good night's sleep. The writer uses transitional expressions such as "an even more important" and "finally, the most important" to help the reader move from one detail to the next. The following box lists common transitional expressions that show order of importance. Directions: A topic sentence appears in the first row of the table below, but the sentences that follow it are not in proper paragraph order. Choose the best order by selecting the correct number for each sentence. Important: The writer describes the photo of Georgia O'Keeffe from front to back. Version A Topic Sentence: In this photograph, Georgia O'Keeffe, her painting, and the desert setting appear in harmony with one another. She holds a large canvas of a desert arch with a yellow sky beaming through its hollow middle; this yellow sets off O'Keeffe's profile, making her look as if she is part of the painting that she created. Looking first at the front of the photo, O'Keeffe's dark dress contrasts her skin, which has been tanned to almost the same hue as the reddish mesa behind her. Behind O'Keeffe and her painting, a pale red-colored mesa rises against the blue sky. Taken together, this photo shows O'Keeffe, her painting, and the desert as distinct elements given life from the same patterns and colors. How does this paragraph order its ideas? Version B Topic Sentence: Georgia O'Keeffe, the American painter, spent a lifetime learning and exploring art. After charcoal, O'Keeffe, now a professional artist in New York, began painting close-ups of silky, bright flowers. Early in her career as an art student in Chicago, O'Keeffe used rough charcoal on smooth white paper for her drawings. At the end of her career in 1984, O'Keeffe was a widely recognized artist whose work remains internationally known and praised. All in all, O'Keeffe's works from all of her artistic stages show an artist who was willing to explore new mediums. How does this paragraph order its ideas? Version C Topic Sentence: One of the greatest American artists of the twentieth century, Georgia O'Keeffe (1887–1986), spent a lifetime learning and exploring art. After her formal education as an artist, O'Keeffe had her first show in New York in 1916; in the following decade, O'Keeffe began painting larger close-ups of flowers, a style for which she is widely recognized. Early on in her schooling, O'Keeffe's teachers recognized her talent and encouraged her to attend the Art Institute of Chicago, where she mastered the traditional principles of art making. During the following years (1930s–1950s), O'Keeffe continued to create her own style, focusing on the stark beauty of the New Mexico desert. By the end of her career in the 1980s, O'Keeffe had proven herself an innovative master of a variety of artistic styles. How does this paragraph order its ideas? 2. Connecting Sentences Using Transitions Transitional words and phrases tell readers how one idea relates to another. Using words and phrases such as however, for example, as a result, and also helps readers to understand your meaning. Transitional words and phrases are used... To give more information additionally, also, as well, first of all (second of all, and so on), for one thing, furthermore, in addition, moreover, next, then To give an example for example, for instance, in particular, one such, specifically To show similarity or agreement also, as well, equally, likewise, similarly To show difference or contradiction although, but, however, in contrast, on the other hand To show cause or effect and so, as a result, because, consequently, since, so, therefore To qualify maybe, perhaps To show placement above, across from, below, beside, here, in, next to, outside To show a temporal (time) relationship after a while, afterward, at last, at present, briefly, currently, eventually, finally, first (second, third, and so on), gradually, immediately, in the future, later, meanwhile, next, now, recently, soon, suddenly, then To show importance or emphasis above all, especially, finally, first, in fact, least, less, most, most importantly, next To summarize or conclude all in all, finally, in conclusion, in other words, lastly, to conclude Directions: In each of the blanks below, select the transitional expression from the dropdown menu to indicate a logical relationship between the two sentences it connects. Then answer the question that follows. Version A In these mountains, there isn't much oxygen above 11,000 feet. , trees and bushes aren't able to grow near the peaks. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence? Wearing a seat belt can help you avoid paying a high fine for breaking the law. , wearing a seat belt can save your life. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence? Version B In many ways, The Great Gatsby is a novel about the greed and selfishness of the wealthiest Americans during the Jazz Age. , it offers readers a glimpse of their irresponsible behavior. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence? Learning disabilities can cause students to experience a variety of challenges. , some students have difficulty focusing during class. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence? Version C First, pull the damaged bike tube from the tire. , find and remove the sharp object that punctured the tire tube. Finally, put a new tube in between the tire and the rim. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence? Everyone wanted to go to Lake Tahoe for the weekend. , no one had enough gas money to go. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the transitional expression in the previous sentence? 3. Repeating Key Words and Using Synonyms One effective way to create coherence within a paragraph is to repeat key words throughout the paragraph. This helps make the focus of the paragraph clear to the reader. You can use synonyms, or words that have a similar meaning, to avoid using key words too much. Directions: Read the passage below and then answer the questions that follow. Version A Repeating the Story of the Titanic ¹The sinking of the world’s most famous ship in 1912 generated three waves of Titanic mania. ²The first wave happened immediately after the disaster, with newsreels, books, poems, and songs telling stories of suffering and bravery. ³The mid-1950s, in the midst of the cold war, is generally considered to represent the second wave of Titanic fever, when a mist of nostalgia hung over the disaster—a longing for a society in which people behaved according to a strict set of rules. ⁴Thirty years later, in 1985, oceanographer Robert Ballard and French explorer Jean-Louis Michel discovered the wreckage of the Titanic lying roughly two and a half miles below the ocean’s surface. ⁵The world went into a Titanic frenzy again, with the third wave becoming even more intense than those before. ⁶This was followed in 1997 by the release of James Cameron’s blockbuster film, Titanic, starring Kate Winslet and Leonardo DiCaprio as two lovers from vastly different backgrounds who meet on board the doomed ship, which has made over $2 billion worldwide and is one of the most successful movies of all time. ⁷Indeed, the disaster has become such a widely recognized story that the event almost seems to repeat itself on a never-ending loop. Source: Wilson, Andrew. “Why the Titanic Still Fascinates Us.” Smithsonian.com, www.smithsonianmag.com/history/why-the-titanic-still-fascinates-us. What is the most important key word in this paragraph? Which sentences in the paragraph repeat the key word to create coherence? Check all that apply. Which of the following does the paragraph use as a synonym for the key word “mania”? Version B The Power of Music ¹Many people think of mu...
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