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Liberty University ENGL 101 Mindtap 2 assignment complete solutions correct answers updated

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Liberty University ENGL 101 Mindtap 2 assignment complete solutions correct answers updated

 

1 . Understanding the Types of Supporting Ideas

For your audience to understand your main idea fully, you need to provide supporting ideas that are relevant (directly and clearly related) and sufficient (enough to be explanatory and/or convincing). When deciding what to include for your supporting ideas, consider the following types:

Examples

Anecdotes (a small personal story)

Facts and statistics

Descriptions

Reasons

Steps and procedures (how-to)

Explanations

Quotations (expert knowledge or opinion)

 

Version A

Each scenario in the following chart contains a main point and a supporting idea (in bold text). Identify the type of supporting idea by selecting the correct option from the dropdown menu.

Scenario

Type

I thought the actress had a distinct look that harkened back to the 1950s. With platinum-blonde ringlets, thickly applied black eyeliner, and fire-engine-red lipstick, she resembled a young and vibrant Marilyn Monroe.

 

Yoga has many health benefits. Dr. Young says, “Doing yoga can help relieve stress.”

 

Actor Orlando Bloom has starred in many popular films. One such film was The Lord of the Rings.

 

The rock band Guns N’ Roses was extraordinarily successful. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012.

 

Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows.

Main Point: On warm summer nights, Joaquin enjoys dining from the Indian food cart in his neighborhood.

Supporting Ideas

A. Joaquin thinks the food is delicious; his stomach rumbles in anticipation of crisp and hot samosas, creamy tikka masala, and the sweet tartness of a mango lassi.

B. Joaquin enjoys the atmosphere; the scent of exotic spices wafts into the humid summer air, and fireflies illuminate the dusky blue twilight.

C. A lassi is a beverage made with yogurt that is similar to a milk shake.

 

What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply.

 

Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows.

Main Point: Writing an effective essay requires time, patience, and a great deal of effort.

Supporting Ideas:

A. The writer must brainstorm and plan his or her essay; he or she must write a draft, and then will definitely need to revise that draft.

B. Good writers often let their work sit for a bit, then re-read it with fresh eyes and determine revisions. The final steps are polishing and proofreading.

C. An effective essay has a compelling introduction, a definitive thesis statement, solid and interesting supporting ideas, and a strong conclusion.

 

What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply.

 

Version B

I don’t like playing football. For one thing, the game is just too rough.

While television didn’t become widely popular until the 1950s, it had actually been around for decades by that point. According to “The Invention of Television,” the first television transmissions began in 1930.

Some people are addicted to their smartphones. For example, college students today look at their phones constantly—even during class.

Many people enjoy reading electronic books. In fact, according to one survey, one in five Americans has read an e-book in the last year.

 

Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows.

Main Point: Social media users can play several popular games online.

Supporting Ideas

A. One music trivia game enables users to listen to a song sample and then guess the song’s title or band from four choices.

B. In a particular word game, users take turns forming words with tiles on a virtual board.

C. In one virtual reality game, players build virtual farms with buildings, animals, and tools; users can tend to their own farms, help out on friends’ farms, and sell crops and wares.

Source: Ulaby, Neda. “Hey, I Know That One: How SongPop Got Millions of Players Naming That Tune.” NPR, 31 Aug. 2012, www.npr.org/sections/monkeysee/ 2012/08/30/160323469/hey-i-know-that-one-how-songpop-got-millions-of-players-naming-that-tune.

What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply.

 

Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows.

Main Point: People often discover their inner strength at the time they face great adversity.

Supporting Ideas:

A. When I learned that I had a brain tumor, I did not cry; I forged ahead with the treatments, determined to recover.

B. When I got passed over for a job I was told was a sure thing, I doubled my efforts to find an even better one.

C. First, one must accept the reality of the situation; then devise the plan to conquer the problem.

What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply.

 

Version C

In 1962, pop artist Andy Warhol created a painting called Big Campbell’s Soup Can with Can Opener (Vegetable). In 2010, the auction house Christie’s sold the painting.

Jeremy has several smartphone applications that help him keep his life in order. These applications include a calendar, a to-do list, and a reminder list.

Linh loves doing homework assignments on her tablet computer. She finds it convenient to not have to carry around a paper notebook anymore.

The 1954 film Seven Samurai is one of the best films of all time. As film critic Roger Ebert noted, it “is not only a great film in its own right, but the source of a genre that would flow through the rest of the century.”

 

Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows.

Main Point: McDonald’s plans to open several all-vegetarian restaurants in India sometime in 2013.

Supporting Ideas

A. Of the Indian population, 20–42% are vegetarians.

B. Cows are sacred to Hindus.

C. India’s Muslims do not eat pork.

Source: Fulton, April. “McDonald’s Goes Vegetarian—In India.” NPR, 4 Sept. 2012, www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2012/09/04/160543754/mcdonalds-goes-vegetarian-in-india.

What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply.

 

What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply.

 

Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows.

Main Point: I believe that gymnastics is the most difficult sport for women.

Supporting Ideas:

A. I believe this because of the unique combination of strength, precision, and flexibility that gymnasts must have.

B. Gymnasts also need to be able to combine power and grace all in one move.

C. I remember when I was in high school, I got the highest score out of all female students on the Physical Fitness Challenge one year; it was simply because of my background in gymnastics.

 

What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply.

 

2 . Generating Supporting Ideas through Prewriting and Research

 

To determine the types and the specifics of the supporting ideas you are going to use, you need to either use prewriting techniques or conduct research. Depending upon your topic, you may want or need to do both. Here’s how:

Prewriting:

Brainstorm

Make a list of all of the ideas you can think of; what have you read, learned, observed, or experienced?

Freewrite

Similar to brainstorming, but you write in complete sentences—as quickly as you can—just letting your ideas unfold one after the other.

Cluster

Brainstorm in a more visual way—make a diagram and put similar ideas together and draw lines between connections.

Question

Sometimes called “Reporter’s Formula,” ask these questions about your main idea: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? You will customize the specifics of each question depending upon your topic.

Research: Note that with prewriting, you will choose one or two of the above techniques to use. With research, you want to follow all of these steps and considerations:

1.

Start with general sources to get an overview: use books, websites, journals, newspapers, videos, etc.

2.

Depending upon your topic, it may be very important to use up-to-date material.

3.

Choose reliable sources. This is most critical on the internet, because virtually anyone can create a blog or website and put out flawed information. Consider the credibility of the author and/or publisher.

4.

Be open to different perspectives—the points of view of a variety of sources.

5.

Read selectively—focus on the information most relevant to your topic once you’ve completed an overview of what is available.

6.

Make sure to document your sources—copy and save the source information of anything you may use in your paper, so that you can provide appropriate credit in your paper, whether you quote the source directly or not! If you skip this step, you could commit plagiarism. The consequences of plagiarism in an academic institution are often very severe.

Important Notes!

You likely will not use all of the ideas that you come up with. It is best to generate a number of ideas, and then narrow them down to the ones you feel are the strongest and that you can develop well.

Relatedly, you want to make sure that the supporting ideas you use are effective. About each one, ask yourself: Is it directly connected to my main point? Does it add value to my main point by backing up the statement?

 

Version A

Directions: Using the information in the previous table, select the most appropriate response to each student's concern.

"I play lacrosse, and for my health class, I want to write an essay about the health benefits of playing lacrosse. What should I do to come up with supporting ideas?"

 

What would you say to help this student?

 

"My teacher just gave me back my first draft, and his comments said that some of my supporting ideas weren't effective. I thought the ones I had were fine, though. How can I tell an effective supporting idea from an ineffective one?"

 

What would you say to help this student?

 

"I'm writing an essay explaining the benefits of studying abroad. Which of these would make effective supporting ideas?"

 

Which supporting idea or ideas should be included in the student’s paragraph? Check all that apply.

 

Version B

"I'm a vegetarian. For my nutrition class I want to write an essay about the health benefits of being a vegetarian. What should I do to come up with supporting ideas?"

 

What would you say to help this student?

 

"I want to write an essay that explains why I love playing chess. What are some things I could do to come up with effective supporting ideas?"

 

What would you say to help this student?

 

"I'm writing a paragraph whose main point is that Christopher Columbus wasn't a hero; instead, he was a scoundrel who destroyed native cultures and brought about the deaths of many people. Which of these would make an effective supporting idea?"

 

Which supporting idea or ideas should be included in the student’s paragraph? Check all that apply.

 

Version C

 

"I love to dance. For my health class, I want to write an essay about the health benefits of dancing. What should I do to come up with supporting ideas?"

 

What would you say to help this student?

 

"I want to write an essay that explains why I love hiking. What are some things I could do to come up with effective supporting ideas?"

 

What would you say to help this student?

 

"I'm writing a paragraph whose main point is that cyberbullying is a widespread problem. Which of these would make effective supporting ideas?"

 

Which supporting idea or ideas should be included in the student’s paragraph? Check all that apply.

 

3 . Supporting a Topic Sentence in a Paragraph

A strong paragraph contains supporting ideas that explain or prove its main point. Whenever you write, you should make sure that your supporting ideas are effective—that is, that they directly connect to the point you're trying to make and don't merely repeat your main idea. To do this, it can be helpful to ask yourself three things when writing and revising:

1.

What is the main point you're trying to make?

2.

Which ideas help you make that point?

3.

Which ideas don’t help you make that point?

If you answer these questions, you'll be able to more easily determine which ideas help make your point and which don't belong in your writing. The following table shows examples of effective and ineffective supporting ideas.

Main Point: Cycling is excellent exercise.

Effective Supporting Ideas

Ineffective Supporting Ideas

Cycling will help you develop strong leg muscles.

Bicycles can be very expensive, and they can require a lot of maintenance. (This idea does not involve exercise.)

Cycling burns many calories per hour.

You can get a good workout by riding a bicycle. (This idea merely repeats the main point.)

As you've noticed, the ideas in the left-hand box relate directly to the main point. The ideas in the right-hand box, however, do not support the main point because they either don't speak about the exercise benefits of cycling or they merely repeat the main point.

Directions: The following table contains information for an essay about illiteracy (the inability to read and write). Which supporting ideas explain or prove the main point? Which ideas do not? Review each idea and indicate whether it is effective or ineffective.

 

Version A

Main Point: Illiteracy can have serious effects on a person's health.

 

Version B

Main Point: Illiteracy negatively affects people's daily lives.

 

Version C

Main Point: Illiteracy causes many people to feel anxious, powerless, and isolated.

 

4 . Organizing Supporting Ideas in a Paragraph

What you include for your supporting ideas matters, but so does how you include them. In other words, you want to organize your supporting ideas in the most logical, effective way. Here are the most common ways of organizing your supporting ideas:

Chronologically

This is time order—from past to present or present to past. It is usually used for stories, events, or processes. You will need time-related transitional words or phrases such as first, in the beginning, then, later, last, or finally.

Spatially

Often used for description or explanation of something visual like a picture or a place. You will need visual transition words such as in the front, on the left, to the back, next to, above, or below.

By order of importance

You might want to build to your most important point or start with it, depending upon how you want to make your impact. You will need to use transitions such as first, more, most, next, or finally.

 

Version A

Read each paragraph from the student essay, and then use the dropdown menu to determine which organizational method is used.

(1) College students should have to volunteer as a graduation requirement. (2) First and most importantly, volunteering builds character. (3) By volunteering at a homeless shelter, for example, a college student may learn the value of generosity, respect, and compassion. (4) The next most important reason why students should have to volunteer is that volunteering helps communities. (5) College students are young and talented, and their diverse range of skills can provide much aid to those in need. (6) Finally, volunteer programs for college students establish strong relationships between colleges and their surrounding communities. (7) Healthy learning environments extend learning beyond the classroom and encourage students to share resources with their neighbors. (8) No one loses when college students volunteer.

 

The supporting ideas in this paragraph are organized .

 

The following are topic sentences that belong in the same essay, but they are not in chronological order. Put them in the correct order by selecting the appropriate number from the dropdown menus. The sentence that should appear first (the thesis) has been labeled for you.

 

Chronological Position

Sentence

1 (Topic Sentence)

Historians have pieced together quite a bit of detail about the life of William Shakespeare.

 

Soon thereafter, Shakespeare composed some of his greatest plays: Hamlet in 1600, Othello in 1603, and Macbeth in 1606.

 

Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564, in Stratford-upon-Avon, England.

 

In 1596, Shakespeare successfully applied for a family coat of arms and was therefore allowed to be called a "gentleman," and two years later, he bought himself a large new house in his hometown of Stratford.

 

In 1582, when he was only 18 years old, he married Anne Hathaway, an older woman.

 

Historical documents show that by 1592, when he was 28 years old, Shakespeare had established a successful career as a playwright in London.

 

Version B

Read each paragraph from the student essay, and then use the dropdown menu to determine which organizational method is used.

(1) College students should not have to volunteer as a graduation requirement. (2) First and most importantly, college students are often overcommitted. (3) Many college students work full- or part-time jobs and have family responsibilities and, therefore, do not have the time or energy to devote to volunteer work. (4) The next most important reason why volunteering shouldn't be a graduation requirement is that colleges and universities should not impose a value system on their students. (5) By requiring volunteerism, colleges take away from students' ability to choose how to spend their free time. (6) Finally, required volunteerism goes against the very principles of volunteering. (7) Instead of generously giving their time and energy, students become resentful and stressed out by the requirement. (8) Students should be given the opportunity to volunteer within their communities but should not be required to do so.

The supporting ideas in this paragraph are organized selector 1.

·spatially

·by order of importance

·chronologically

 

The following are topic sentences that belong in the same essay, but they are not in chronological order. Put them in the correct order by selecting the appropriate number from the dropdown menus. The sentence that should appear first (the thesis) has been labeled for you.

Chronological Position

Sentence

1 (Topic Sentence)

My grandfather, Francis Xavier Lorango, took many risks in his life.

 

After just a year in Montana, Francis met Betty, the daughter of a German butcher in Anaconda, and they became the town's only biracial couple when they got married in the spring of 1949.

 

My grandfather worked for the mine until 1965, when he decided to pursue his real dream: he began work as an artist, painting Montana landscapes until his death 20 years later.

 

Eventually, in 1947, he arrived in Anaconda, Montana, where, due to racist hiring practices, he had to lie about his Native American heritage to get a job as a miner.

 

At the age of 17, he left his home to seek work; he traveled the west, taking odd jobs.

 

He was born in 1927 on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation in North Dakota.

 

Version C

Read each paragraph from the student essay, and then use the dropdown menu to determine which organizational method is used.

(1) Volunteering for Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) offers many important rewards. (2) One such reward is that volunteers who are interested in social work, education, or nonprofit work can learn about their fields of interest through the program. (3) For example, BBBS is a great way for volunteers to get the experience of working with young people one on one. (4) More important than career education, though, is the fact that volunteers for BBBS learn about their communities. (5) Volunteers often get to know their little siblings' schools, churches, and athletic programs. (6) Most importantly, volunteers for BBBS often build lasting relationships with little siblings. (7) For example, I am close with my little brother, Michael, whom I met 12 years ago. (8) Overall, volunteering for Big Brothers Big Sisters is a worthwhile and rewarding experience.

The supporting ideas in this paragraph are organized selector 1.

·spatially

·by order of importance

·chronologically

 

The following are topic sentences that belong in the same essay, but they are not in chronological order. Put them in the correct order by selecting the appropriate number from the dropdown menus. The sentence that should appear first (the thesis) has been labeled for you.

Chronological Position

Sentence

1 (Topic Sentence)

Amelia Earhart is best known for her disappearance during a solo, round-the-world airplane flight, but her life was full of remarkable adventure.

 

Earhart was born in 1897 in Kansas.

 

Earhart ventured to the Pacific in 1936, becoming the first person to fly alone from Hawaii to California.

 

After working as a nurse and a social worker, she became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean as a passenger in June of 1928.

 

Her final flight was the next year, when she disappeared while attempting to fly around the world alone.

 

By 1932, she was setting records for her solo flights: she was the first woman to cross the Atlantic alone in May, and she flew solo from California to New Jersey in August.

 

5 . Supporting a Thesis Statement

When you write an essay or a paper, your thesis statement—contained in your introduction—will provide the main idea for the paper. Each paragraph will introduce and develop a supporting idea. Essentially, the topic sentence of each paragraph is one supporting point for your main idea.

Just as you do within a paragraph, you need to determine how to organize your paragraphs overall. Depending upon your topic and the supporting ideas you’ve chosen, you may use an organizing strategy like chronologically or order of importance, or you may use a pattern such as cause and effect, comparison/contrast, or classification.

 

Version A

Read the thesis statement, and answer the question that follows.

Though the Titan, Goliath, and Hercules are all giant beetle species, they each have characteristics that make them special in their own ways.

Source: “The World’s Biggest Bugs.” Museum of Unnatural History, www.unmuseum.org/big_bugs.htm.

 

Which of the following topic sentences support the thesis?  Check all that apply.

 

Version B

Read the thesis statement, and answer the question that follows.

The Titan, Goliath, and Hercules species of beetle share the distinction of immense size, but each has its own unique qualities that set it apart.

Source: “Biggest Bug: Goliath Beetle.” Extreme Science, www.extremescience.com/biggest-bug.htm.

 

Which of the following topic sentences support the thesis?  Check all that apply.

 

Version C

Read the thesis statement, and answer the question that follows.

The Titan beetle, the Goliath beetle, and the Hercules beetle are known for their massive size, but each species has a unique feature that distinguishes it from the others.

Source: Porter, Jessica. “Smithsonian Snapshot: Titan Beetle.” Newsdesk: Newsroom of the Smithsonian, newsdesk.si.edu/snapshot/titan-beetle.

 

Which of the following topic sentences support the thesis?  Check all that apply.

 

6 . Avoiding Plagiarism

When you incorporate research, or even a single quotation, into your own writing, you must be careful to avoid plagiarism—the use of another writer’s words or ideas without giving proper credit for them. The consequences for plagiarizing in an academic or professional setting can be very serious. Here is how to avoid it:

1.

When you are taking notes or collecting research, keep track of the source details for any information you might use.

2.

As you write your paper, include the documentation of your sources. This will usually include an in-text citation (as you write) and a list of references at the end of your paper. Typically, you will use a specific format and style, such as MLA (Modern Language Association).

3.

Before handing in your paper, review your writing to ensure that you correctly acknowledged and cited all of your sources. Remember, plagiarizing includes using ideas you learned elsewhere even if you

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[Solved] Liberty University ENGL 101 Mindtap 2 assignment complete solutions correct answers updated

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Liberty University ENGL 101 Mindtap 2 assignment complete solutions correct answers updated 1 . Understanding the Types of Supporting Ideas For your audience to understand your main idea fully, you need to provide supporting ideas that are relevant (directly and clearly related) and sufficient (enough to be explanatory and/or convincing). When deciding what to include for your supporting ideas, consider the following types: • Examples • Anecdotes (a small personal story) • Facts and statistics • Descriptions • Reasons • Steps and procedures (how-to) • Explanations • Quotations (expert knowledge or opinion) Version A Each scenario in the following chart contains a main point and a supporting idea (in bold text). Identify the type of supporting idea by selecting the correct option from the dropdown menu. Scenario Type I thought the actress had a distinct look that harkened back to the 1950s. With platinum-blonde ringlets, thickly applied black eyeliner, and fire-engine-red lipstick, she resembled a young and vibrant Marilyn Monroe. Yoga has many health benefits. Dr. Young says, “Doing yoga can help relieve stress.” Actor Orlando Bloom has starred in many popular films. One such film was The Lord of the Rings. The rock band Guns N’ Roses was extraordinarily successful. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012. Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows. Main Point: On warm summer nights, Joaquin enjoys dining from the Indian food cart in his neighborhood. Supporting Ideas A. Joaquin thinks the food is delicious; his stomach rumbles in anticipation of crisp and hot samosas, creamy tikka masala, and the sweet tartness of a mango lassi. B. Joaquin enjoys the atmosphere; the scent of exotic spices wafts into the humid summer air, and fireflies illuminate the dusky blue twilight. C. A lassi is a beverage made with yogurt that is similar to a milk shake. What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply. Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows. Main Point: Writing an effective essay requires time, patience, and a great deal of effort. Supporting Ideas: A. The writer must brainstorm and plan his or her essay; he or she must write a draft, and then will definitely need to revise that draft. B. Good writers often let their work sit for a bit, then re-read it with fresh eyes and determine revisions. The final steps are polishing and proofreading. C. An effective essay has a compelling introduction, a definitive thesis statement, solid and interesting supporting ideas, and a strong conclusion. What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply. Version B I don’t like playing football. For one thing, the game is just too rough. While television didn’t become widely popular until the 1950s, it had actually been around for decades by that point. According to “The Invention of Television,” the first television transmissions began in 1930. Some people are addicted to their smartphones. For example, college students today look at their phones constantly—even during class. Many people enjoy reading electronic books. In fact, according to one survey, one in five Americans has read an e-book in the last year. Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows. Main Point: Social media users can play several popular games online. Supporting Ideas A. One music trivia game enables users to listen to a song sample and then guess the song’s title or band from four choices. B. In a particular word game, users take turns forming words with tiles on a virtual board. C. In one virtual reality game, players build virtual farms with buildings, animals, and tools; users can tend to their own farms, help out on friends’ farms, and sell crops and wares. Source: Ulaby, Neda. “Hey, I Know That One: How SongPop Got Millions of Players Naming That Tune.” NPR, 31 Aug. 2012, www.npr.org/sections/monkeysee/ 2012/08/30/160323469/hey-i-know-that-one-how-songpop-got-millions-of-players-naming-that-tune. What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply. Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows. Main Point: People often discover their inner strength at the time they face great adversity. Supporting Ideas: A. When I learned that I had a brain tumor, I did not cry; I forged ahead with the treatments, determined to recover. B. When I got passed over for a job I was told was a sure thing, I doubled my efforts to find an even better one. C. First, one must accept the reality of the situation; then devise the plan to conquer the problem. What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply. Version C In 1962, pop artist Andy Warhol created a painting called Big Campbell’s Soup Can with Can Opener (Vegetable). In 2010, the auction house Christie’s sold the painting. Jeremy has several smartphone applications that help him keep his life in order. These applications include a calendar, a to-do list, and a reminder list. Linh loves doing homework assignments on her tablet computer. She finds it convenient to not have to carry around a paper notebook anymore. The 1954 film Seven Samurai is one of the best films of all time. As film critic Roger Ebert noted, it “is not only a great film in its own right, but the source of a genre that would flow through the rest of the century.” Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows. Main Point: McDonald’s plans to open several all-vegetarian restaurants in India sometime in 2013. Supporting Ideas A. Of the Indian population, 20–42% are vegetarians. B. Cows are sacred to Hindus. C. India’s Muslims do not eat pork. Source: Fulton, April. “McDonald’s Goes Vegetarian—In India.” NPR, 4 Sept. 2012, www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2012/09/04/160543754/mcdonalds-goes-vegetarian-in-india. What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply. What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply. Study the main point and supporting ideas, and then answer the question that follows. Main Point: I believe that gymnastics is the most difficult sport for women. Supporting Ideas: A. I believe this because of the unique combination of strength, precision, and flexibility that gymnasts must have. B. Gymnasts also need to be able to combine power and grace all in one move. C. I remember when I was in high school, I got the highest score out of all female students on the Physical Fitness Challenge one year; it was simply because of my background in gymnastics. What types of supporting ideas are these? Check all that apply. 2 . Generating Supporting Ideas through Prewriting and Research To determine the types and the specifics of the supporting ideas you are going to use, you need to either use prewriting techniques or conduct research. Depending upon your topic, you may want or need to do both. Here’s how: Prewriting: • Brainstorm Make a list of all of the ideas you can think of; what have you read, learned, observed, or experienced? • Freewrite Similar to brainstorming, but you write in complete sentences—as quickly as you can—just letting your ideas unfold one after the other. • Cluster Brainstorm in a more visual way—make a diagram and put similar ideas together and draw lines between connections. • Question Sometimes called “Reporter’s Formula,” ask these questions about your main idea: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? You will customize the specifics of each question depending upon your topic. Research: Note that with prewriting, you will choose one or two of the above techniques to use. With research, you want to follow all of these steps and considerations: 1. Start with general sources to get an overview: use books, websites, journals, newspapers, videos, etc. 2. Depending upon your topic, it may be very important to use up-to-date material. 3. Choose reliable sources. This is most critical on the internet, because virtually anyone can create a blog or website and put out flawed information. Consider the credibility of the author and/or publisher. 4. Be open to different perspectives—the points of view of a variety of sources. 5. Read selectively—focus on the information most relevant to your topic once you’ve completed an overview of what is available. 6. Make sure to document your sources—copy and save the source information of anything you may use in your paper, so that you can provide appropriate credit in your paper, whether you quote the source directly or not! If you skip this step, you could commit plagiarism. The consequences of plagiarism in an academic institution are often very severe. Important Notes! • You likely will not use all of the ideas that you come up with. It is best to generate a number of ideas, and then narrow them down to the ones you feel are the strongest and that you can develop well. • Relatedly, you want to make sure that the supporting ideas you use are effective. About each one, ask yourself: Is it directly connected to my main point? Does it add value to my main point by backing up the statement? Version A Directions: Using the information in the previous table, select the most appropriate response to each student's concern. "I play lacrosse, and for my health class, I want to write an essay about the health benefits of playing lacrosse. What should I do to come up with supporting ideas?" What would you say to help this student? "My teacher just gave me back my first draft, and his comments said that some of my supporting ideas weren't effective. I thought the ones I had were fine, though. How can I tell an effective supporting idea from an ineffective one?" What would you say to help this student? "I'm writing an essay explaining the benefits of studying abroad. Which of these would make effective supporting ideas?" Which supporting idea or ideas should be included in the student’s paragraph? Check all that apply. Version B "I'm a vegetarian. For my nutrition class I want to write an essay about the health benefits of being a vegetarian. What should I do to come up with supporting ideas?" What would you say to help this student? "I want to write an essay that explains why I love playing chess. What are some things I could do to come up with effective supporting ideas?" What would you say to help this student? "I'm writing a paragraph whose main point is that Christopher Columbus wasn't a hero; instead, he was a scoundrel who destroyed native cultures and brought about the deaths of many people. Which of these would make an effective supporting idea?" Which supporting idea or ideas should be included in the student’s paragraph? Check all that apply. Version C "I love to dance. For my health class, I want to write an essay about the health benefits of dancing. What should I do to come up with supporting ideas?" What would you say to help this student? "I want to write an essay that explains why I love hiking. What are some things I could do to come up with effective supporting ideas?" What would you say to help this student? "I'm writing a paragraph whose main point is that cyberbullying is a widespread problem. Which of these would make effective supporting ideas?" Which supporting idea or ideas should be included in the student’s paragraph? Check all that apply. 3 . Supporting a Topic Sentence in a Paragraph A strong paragraph contains supporting ideas that explain or prove its main point. Whenever you write, you should make sure that your supporting ideas are effective—that is, that they directly conne...
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