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Understand and compare the different measures of morbidity
Incidence and prevalence
Define
A prevalence rate is the proportion of the population that has a health condition at a point in time. For example, 70 influenza case-patients in March 2005 reported in County A.
Incidence rate or person-time rate is a measure of incidence that incorporates time directly into the denominator. Incidence refers to the occurrence of new cases of disease or injury in a population over a specified period of time. Although
some epidemiologists use incidence to mean the number of new
cases in a community, others use incidence to mean the number of
new cases per unit of population.
Understand why data are important for measuring risk
Interpret findings
Interpretation involves putting the study findings into perspective, identifying the key take-home messages, and making sound recommendations. Doing so requires that the epidemiologist be knowledgeable about the subject matter and the strengths and weaknesses of the study
Understand the relationship between incidence and prevalence and impact of each on duration of disease
The two primary measures of morbidity are incidence and prevalence.
• Incidence rates reflect the occurrence of new disease in a population. An incidence rate describes how quickly disease occurs in a population.
• Prevalence reflects the presence of disease in a population.
Calculate incidence rate
Number of new cases of disease or injury during specified period
Time each person was observed, totaled for all persons
Calculate prevalence rate
Number of new cases of disease or injury during specified period
Time each person was observed, totaled for all persons
Relationship between prevalence, incidence, and mortality
Incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates are three frequency measures that are used to characterize the occurrence of health events in a population.
Incidence rate or person-time rate is a measure of incidence that incorporates time directly into the denominator. A prevalence rate is the
proportion of the population that has a health condition at a point
in time. A mortality rate is a measure of the frequency of occurrence of
death in a defined population during a specified interval.
Examples of incidence rates and prevalence rates
Prevalence example, 70 influenza case-patients in March 2005
reported in County A,
Incidence for example, 70 new cases of breast cancer per 1,000 women per year. This measure conveys a sense of the speed with which disease occurs in a population, and seems to imply that this pattern has occurred and will continue to occur for the foreseeable future.

Surveillance
Importance of surveillance
Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data to help guide public health decision making and action. Surveillance is equivalent to monitoring the pulse of the community. The purpose of public health surveillance, which is sometimes called “information for action,”18 is to portray the ongoing patterns of disease occurrence and disease potential so that investigation, control, and prevention measures can be applied efficiently and effectively
Define and discuss passive verses active surveillance, including examples and advantages and disadvantages of each
surveillance, passive public health surveillance in which data are sent to the health agency
without prompting. form of data collection, in which health-care providers send
reports to a health department on the basis of a known set of rules
and regulations, is called passive surveillance (provider-initiated).  Investigators may conduct what is sometimes called stimulated or enhanced passive surveillance by sending a letter describing the situation and asking for reports of similar cases
surveillance, active public health surveillance in which the health agency solicits reports.  This active surveillance (health department- initiated) is usually limited to specific diseases over a limited period of time, such as after a community exposure or during an outbreak. They
may conduct active surveillance by telephoning or visiting the facilities to collect information on any additional cases.

Understand, compare, and interpret the different measures of mortality, including calculating and interpreting data in tables
Importance of having numerator (# of deaths) and denominators (population at risk) when determining risk
Absolute number verses a rate
Mortality rates
Case-fatality rate
Proportionate mortality ratio

Define, interpret, and compare measures of validit
Validity refers to whether surveillance data are measuring what they are intended to measure. As such, validity is related to sensitivity and predictive value positive. See page 44 for table 5.10
Sensitivity: the ability of a test, case definition, or surveillance system to identify true cases; the proportion of people with a health condition (or the proportion of outbreaks) that are identified by a screening test or case definition (or surveillance system).
Specificity: the ability or a test, case definition, or surveillance system to exclude persons without the health condition of interest; the proportion of persons without a health condition that are correctly identified as such by a screening test, case definition, or surveillance system.
Characteristics of a good screening test:

Understand how realiability can be improved for screening tests

Disease transmission and outbreaks
Define attack rate: an attack rate is the proportion of the population that develops illness during an outbreak. For

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Understand and compare the different measures of morbidity Incidence and prevalence Define A prevalence rate is the proportion of the population that has a health condition at a point in time. For example, 70 influenza case-patients in March 2005 reported in County A. Incidence rate or person-time rate is a measure of incidence that incorporates time directly into the denominator. Incidence refers to the occurrence of new cases of disease or injury in a population over a specified period of time. Although some epidemiologists use incidence to mean the number of new cases in a community, others use incidence to mean the number of new cases per unit of population. Understand why data are important for measuring risk Interpret findings Interpretation involves putting the study findings into perspective, identifying the key take-home messages, and making sound recommendations. Doing so requires that the epidemiologist be knowledgeable about the subject matter and the strengths and weaknesses of the study Understand the relationship between incidence and prevalence and impact of each on duration of disease The two primary measures of morbidity are incidence and prevalence. • Incidence rates reflect the occurrence of new disease in a population. An incidence rate describes how quickly disease occurs in a population. • Prevalence reflects the presence of disease in a population. Calculate inc...
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