GI symptoms resulting in heart burn( ch 41, pg 1429- 1466)
The clinical manifestations of (GERD) reflux esophagitis are heartburn from acid regurgitation, chronic cough, asthma attacks and laryngitis.
Heartburn also may be experienced as chest pain, which requires ruling out cardiac ischemia.
Hiatal hernias are often asymptomatic. Generally, a wide variety of symptoms develop later in life and are associated with other gastrointestinal disorders, including GERD. Manifestations of the various types of hiatal hernia are difficult to distinguish. Symptoms include heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, and epigastric pain
Early stages of esophageal carcinoma are asymptomatic. The two main manifestations of esophageal carcinoma are chest pain and dysphagia. The most common type of pain is heartburn (pyrosis). It is initiated by eating spicy or highly seasoned foods and by lying down.
Complications of gastric resection surgery (c 41, pg 1439)
Weight loss often follows gastric resection but stabilizes within 3 months. Inadequate food intake is a common cause because many individuals cannot tolerate the osmotic effect of carbohydrates or a normal-size meal. Foods may be poorly absorbed because the stomach is less able to mix, churn, and break down food particles. Abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and malabsorption of fats also contribute to weight loss. In the case of bariatric surgery for extreme obesity, weight loss is the intended outcome.
Chicken pox ( c 46,pg 1659)
an infectious viral disease that is spread by direct contact or through the air by coughing or sneezing; it causes a blister-like rash that first affects the face and trunk and then can spread over the rest of the body; symptoms include severe itching, fatigue, and fever.
Skin cancer ( ch 46 pg, 1641)
Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most prevalent forms of cancer. Malignant melanoma is the most serious and the most common cause of death from skin cancer
Chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes most skin cancers. Protection from UV radiation from the sun and artificial sources (e.g., tanning beds), particularly during the childhood years, significantly reduces the risk of skin cancer in later years. Areas commonly exposed to the sun’s rays—face, neck, and hands—are highly vulnerable for such lesions. Dark-skinned persons and those avoiding sunlight are significantly less likely to develop these malignant tumors. In dark-skinned persons, basal cells contain the pigment melanin, a protective factor against sun exposure
Basal cell carcinoma ( most common) is a surface epithelial tumor of the skin originating from undifferentiated basal or germinative cells. The tumors grow upward and laterally or downward to the dermal-epidermal junction. They usually have depressed centers and rolled borders. Early tumors are so small that they are not clinically apparent.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a tumor of the epidermis and the second most common human cancer. characterized: in situ (Bowen disease [BD]) and invasive. Areas affected are the head and neck (75%) and the hands (15%), with 10% of squamous cell carcinomas occurring elsewhere on the body.
Parts of the heart in terms of function, such as pericardium ( ch 31, p 1085)
The heart wall has three layers—the epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium—and is enclosed in a double-walled membranous sac, the pericardium
The pericardial sac has several functions. It (1) prevents displacement of the heart during gravitational acceleration or deceleration, (2) acts as a physical barrier that protects the heart against infection and inflammation from the lungs and pleural space, and (3) contains pain receptors and mechanoreceptors that can elicit reflex changes in blood pressure and heart rate.
the outer layer of the pericardium, the parietal pericardium, is composed of a surface layer of mesothelium over a thin layer of connective tissue. The visceral pericardium, or epicardium, is the inner layer of the pericardium
At one point the visceral pericardium folds back and becomes continuous with the parietal pericardium, allowing the large vessels to enter and leave the heart without breaching the pericardial layer
The outer layer of the heart, the epicardium, provides a smooth surface that allows the heart to contract and relax within the pericardium with a minimal amount of friction.
the internal lining of the myocardium is composed of connective tissue and a layer of squamous cells called the endocardium
The endocardial lining of the heart is continuous with the endothelium that lines all the arteries, veins, and capillaries of the body, creating a continuous, closed circulatory system
Congenital heart defects (ch 33pg 1200)
Congenital heart disease is the leading cause of death, excluding prematurity, during the first year of life.5It is estimated that as many as 35% of deaths caused by congenital heart defects occur in the first year of life and that one third of children born with congenital heart disease will die as a result of their cardiac disease
The etiology of most congenital heart disease is unknown.
As many as 50% of infants with trisomy 21 have a congenital heart defect, either an AV canal defect or a VSD. Extra cardiac defects are noted in as many as 35% of infants with cardiac lesions. Prospective studies using chromosomal analysis have suggested that congenital cardiac malformations may be the result of a single gene defect
Urinary tract obstruction (ch 37, pg 1340)
Urinary tract obstruction is an interference with the flow of urine at any site along the urinary tract. An obstruction may be anatomic or functional. It impedes flow proximal to the obstruction, dilates structures distal to the obstruction, increases risk for infection, and compromises renal function. Anatomic changes in the urinary system caused by obstruction are referred to as obstructive uropathy. The severity of an obstructive uropathy is determined by: (1) the location of the obstructive lesion, (2) the involvement of one or both upper urinary tracts (ureters and renal pelvis), (3) the completeness of the obstruction, (4) the duration of the obstruction, and (5) the nature of the obstructive lesion. Obstructions may be relieved or partially alleviated by correction of the obstruction, although permanent impairments occur if a complete or partial obstruction persists over weeks to months or longer.
GI symptoms of conditions such as pyloric stenosis, hiatal hernia, ulcerative colitis- (ch 41 pg 148,1429,1440)
Hiatal hernia is the protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through the hiatus (esophageal opening in the diaphragm) at the gastroesophageal junction. Hiatal hernia can be sliding, paraesophageal, or mixed.
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that causes
- This solution has not purchased yet.
- Submitted On 15 Feb, 2020 12:16:31