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Getting Respect from a Boss You Respect: How Different Types of Respect Interact to Explain Subordinates’ Job Satisfaction as Mediated by Self-Determination Catharina Decker • Niels Van Quaquebeke Received: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 5 July 2014 / Published online: 20 July 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014 Abstract Interpersonal respect can be differentiated into two kinds: (1) horizontal respect, i.e. treating someone with dignity; and (2) vertical respect, i.e. genuinely honoring someone’s merits. With the present research, we draw on motivation theory to explore their interplay in leadership relations. Specifically, we argue for a moderated mediation hypothesis in that (a) leaders’ horizontal respect for their subordinates fundamentally speaks to subordinates’ selfdetermination and (b) that the message of respectful leadership is enhanced by the vertical respect subordinates have for their leaders. As a result, subordinates are more satisfied with their jobs, which should also show in a decreased willingness to leave. The proposed model was supported in two survey studies (N = 391 and N = 518) and an experimental scenario study (N = 107)—thus suggesting that perceived leader behavior needs to be complemented by leader standing. Keywords Horizontal respect Intention to leave Job satisfaction Respect for the leader Respectful leadership Self-determination Vertical respect Introduction Working for a leader who treats subordinates with respect is one of the most valued aspects in people’s daily jobs. Indeed, for many people the importance of this factor is equal to, or even greater than, aspects such as salary or job security (Van Quaquebeke et al. 2009). As a consequence of such respectful leadership, people feel more identified with their leaders, more satisfied with their jobs, and more committed to their teams and organizations (Boezeman and Ellemers 2007, 2008a, b; De Cremer and Tyler 2005; Ellemers et al. 2013; Sleebos et al. 2006a, b; Van Quaquebeke and Eckloff 2010, 2013; Wombacher and Felfe 2012). While the topic of treating subordinates respectfully has attracted some attention within leadership research, respective research on respect has predominantly taken a leader-centric view thereby overlooking that the follower plays a role in the dyad as well. Indeed, leaders and subordinates will both see and treat each other in certain ways. It is our belief we can delineate more nuanced predictions by considering such combination of action and perception. Specifically, we argue that how one regards the source of respect may be just as important as the condition of being respected. Put differently, subordinates may be more profoundly impacted by a leader’s respect or disrespect if said leader is held in high regard. In explaining this dynamic, we draw on self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci 2004) to argue that self-determination is a key factor in respectful leadership, and that the support of self-determination is experienced differently depending on the vertical respect for the source. With our investigation, we seek to extend extant leadership literature in four significant ways. First, we follow calls to assess leaders’ behavior and subordinates’ C. Decker RespectResearchGroup, University of Hamburg, Rothenbaumchaussee 34, 20148 Hamburg, Germany e-mail: decker@respectresearchgroup.org N. Van Quaquebeke (&) Management & Economics, Ku¨hne Logistics University, Grosser Grasbrook 17, 20457 Hamburg, Germany e-mail: niels.quaquebeke@the-klu.org 123 J Bus Ethics (2015) 131:543–556 DOI 10.1007/s10551-014-2291-8 perception of leaders in interaction with one another in order to fully understand subordinates’ workplace behavior (De Cremer et al. 2009). Second, and even more to the point, our research integrates different streams of respect research by empirically addressing different types of respect in a leader–subordinate dyad in interaction— something that has been called for in respective theory on respect at the workplace, e.g. by Grover (2013) who states that ‘‘future research […] should consider how the two types of respect affect the leader–follower relationship’’ (p. 18; cf. also Clarke 2011). Third, and central to our reasoning, we offer a key motivational mediating mechanism. In doing so, the present research extends our understanding on the dynamics of respect at the workplace by tying the concept to the well-elaborated theoretical framework of self-determination (Deci et al. 1989). Lastly, the present research also provides some nuanced practical recommendations beyond a mere call for respectful leadership training by arguing that behavior needs to be complemented by standing. Theoretical Background Respect at Work In recent philosophical and applied studies, two forms of respect have been distinguished: horizontal (cf. recognition) and vertical (cf. appraisal) respect (Clarke 2011; Darwall 1977; Grover 2013; Van Quaquebeke et al. 2007). Horizontal respect is (or should be) unconditionally guaranteed to every human being: It is a personal attitude of treating others as equals or, at least, extending them equal dignity. In contrast, vertical respect is paid to people for reasons such as their expertise, excellence, or status; it is conditional in the sense of being based on differences between people (cf. Clarke 2011; Darwall 1977). Vertical respect hence depicts an attitude that communicates the positive evaluation of the other in difference to oneself, which often entails an openness toward influence from the respected person (Van Quaquebeke et al. 2007, 2009). While horizontal and vertical respect are two dimensions on which every-day interactions between people can be mapped (cf. Ellemers et al. 2013; Van Quaquebeke et al. 2007), their occurrences in work interactions are less balanced. Theory implies that horizontal respect is a generally experienced, process-related characteristic and that vertical respect, by contrast, is a more selectively experienced, outcome-related characteristic (Darwall 1977; Van Quaquebeke et al. 2007). As a result, it seems that leaders and subordinates tend to prioritize certain types of respect in their roles. Recent research has shown that subordinates, for instance, consider the horizontal respect of their leaders as more important than being vertically respected and appreciated for good performance (Van Quaquebeke et al. 2009). In contrast, leaders who are by definition superior face the question of whether their subordinates are vertically respecting, i.e. informally also acknowledging the status differential. In this regard, Ellingsen and Johannesson (2004, p. 135) propose that leaders need ‘‘proving to be a worthy audience.’’ In the actual workplace phenotype, both types of respect show themselves as slightly different compared to the pure theoretical concepts. Horizontal respect from the leader, or respectful leadership, is a behavior that leads to perceptions of meaning and self-worth in the subordinate: The leader recognizes and considers the presence of the subordinate as well as treats him or her as a full-fledged counterpart (cf. Dillon 1992; Van Quaquebeke et al. 2007, 2009; Van Quaquebeke and Eckloff 2010). In contrast, vertical respect at the workplace manifests itself in a voluntary influence asymmetry, i.e., in enjoying being able to learn and seeking advice from the respected person (cf. Clarke 2011; Van Quaquebeke and Eckloff 2010). Consequently, subordinates’ vertical respect toward their leaders can be understood as a form of openness to influence (Van Quaquebeke et al. 2011a). Horizontal Respect and Job Satisfaction Given its significant impact on organizational performance on various levels (Grandey et al. 2002; Harter et al. 2002; Ilies et al. 2009), considerable research has been conducted on the antecedents of job satisfaction. In this respect, a meta-analysis by Humphrey et al. (2007) shows that the social characteristics of the workplace can explain large amounts of variance in job satisfaction and intention to leave. Recent research has, moreover, concluded that leaders constitute the most influential social signal for subordinates at their workplaces (Grandey et al. 2002). For example, Ronen and Mikulincer (2012) pointed out that the quality of relationships leaders have with their subordinates contributes directly to subordinates’ job satisfaction. Here it is important to note that job satisfaction can be defined as the degree of value fulfillment concerning the work setting (Locke 1970). Keeping this in mind, Van Quaquebeke and colleagues’ procedure (2009) is interesting as it used a value-centered approach by asking subordinates to rate the importance and perceived practice of 19 work values. ‘‘Working for a supervisor who treats me with respect’’ (Van Quaquebeke et al. 2009, p. 427) was ranked as the second-most important work value. Strikingly, the same item was also found to be among the values with the highest differences between importance and perceived actual practice. Hence, unsurprisingly, respectful leadership has later also been empirically linked directly to job 544 C. Decker, N. Van Quaquebeke 123 satisfaction (e.g. Van Quaquebeke and Eckloff 2010). However, the question remains as to why this link exists, or against Locke’s (1970) definition what values do respectful leadership cater for so that people experience job satisfaction. The Mediating Role of Self-determination According to the motivational theory of self-determination (Deci et al. 1989), a person feels self-determined when she/ he experiences herself/himself to be acting autonomously (Ryan and Connell 1989), to be effective in actions or interactions (Ryan and Deci 2004), and to be connected to other individuals or groups (Baumeister and Leary 1995). Altogether, self-determination is proposed as a means of ensuring optimal human functioning (Ryan and Deci 2004) and is considered to be one of the most basic sources of human motivation and well-being (Ryan and Deci 2000). Consequently, Baard et al. (2004) also claimed that selfdetermination should be an important source for job satisfaction. It is true that people who perceive themselves as self-determined report lower burnout (Van den Broeck et al. 2008), higher job satisfaction (Ilardi et al. 1993; Kovjanic et al. 2012), and lower intention to quit (Vansteenkiste et al. 2007). As self-determination is related to various other positive business outcomes in addition to the above (e.g. Puffer 1987; Vansteenkiste et al. 2007), Deci et al. (1989) argue that leaders, being practically in the driving seat, should see their prime responsibility as the enhancement of their subordinates’ self-determination (see also Richer and Vallerand 1995). In this respect, it is noteworthy that especially respectful leadership may contribute to subordinates’ self-determination. Research by De Cremer and Mulder (2007), for instance, underlines that the presence of respect in people’s interaction with authorities helps to foster a sense of belonging (cf. De Cremer 2003; Ellemers et al. 2013; Sleebos et al. 2006a). Further empirical research supports the notion that respectful leadership does cultivate a sense of identification with the leader (Van Quaquebeke and Eckloff 2010). Lalljee et al. (2008) mirror above ideas by proposing that the respecter recognizes and acknowledges the counterpart in his or her integrity and autonomy. Their claim is echoed by Barilan (2011), who argues that horizontal respect leads to autonomy because it grants individuals the right to choose and act freely. Lastly, Boezemann and Ellemers (2007, 2008a, b) were able to show that respectful messages from authorities also carry a subtext of support for competence that motivates people in and for voluntary work. In sum, leading others respectfully should evoke a sense of self-determination (cf. Van Quaquebeke and Eckloff 2010) and such self-determination should translate to subordinates’ job satisfaction (Gagne´ and Deci 2005; Ryan and Deci 2000). In other words: Hypothesis 1 Self-determination mediates the positive relationship between subordinates’ perceived respectful leadership and subordinates’ job satisfaction. The Moderating Role of Vertical Respect As Hemmings (2002) notes, individuals who are vertically respected by others have the opportunity to assert social control and influence. This would seem especially true of the leader–subordinate relationship given the formal nature of the leader’s position. Fittingly, it appears that subordinates who vertically respect their leaders also demonstrate a readiness for and openness to influence (Van Quaquebeke et al. 2007, 2009). This openness is rooted in a social comparison process in which differences in merit spur subordinates to consciously and voluntarily seek input (Dillon 2003; Van Quaquebeke et al. 2011b). In a nutshell, leaders who compare favorably (i.e. are respected) in the eyes of their subordinates become more relevant in the interpersonal dynamic (cf. Fiske et al. 1999). Following our argument on the positive influence of respectful leadership on self-determination, we further reason that the effect of respectful leadership on subordinates’ self-determination will be stronger when leaders are vertically respected by their subordinates (cf. the power perspective offered by Yukl and Falbe 1991). This reasoning mirrors the argument by Ellingsen and Johannesson (2004), who conceptually noted that the value of respectful leadership should increase for subordinates when they perceive their leader as a respectable person. Hence, we can specifically hypothesize that the subordinate’s vertical respect for his or her leader moderates the relationship between the perceived respectful leadership and the subordinate’s self-determination (see Fig. 1). Hypothesis 2 The relationship between respectful leadership and subordinate job satisfaction as mediated by selfdetermination (H1) is stronger the more subordinates vertically respect their leader. Vertical Respect for Leader (W) SelfDetermination (M) Respectful Leadership (X) a b c' Job Satisfaction (Y) Fig. 1 Path diagram of hypothesized model Getting Respect from a Boss You Respect 545 123 Study Overview We conducted three studies to test our model. Study 1 and 2 are survey studies, Study 3 is an experimental scenario study. We conducted two field studies for three reasons: First, simple replication foster confidence in the results. Second, we used a different sampling strategy for each study to show robustness of our findings against potential self-selection biases and different working populations. Third, we include ‘intention to leave’ in Study 2 as an additional proxy for job satisfaction, as that variable complements the more affective domain of job satisfaction with a more behavioral (intent)-focused triangulation. Additionally, we conducted an experimental study to complement and substantiate findings with regard to internal validity and causality across both dependent measures (Dipboye 1990; Hole 2013). According to Hayes (2013), moderated mediation models can be tested using the PROCESS-macro in SPSS, which refers to the general linear model. As the ANOVA procedure is restricted to cases of the general linear model, and because PROCESS can also compute moderated mediation analyses for dichotomous variables, we computed every study using the PROCESS-macro. This uniformity allows for direct comparison over all three studies. Study 1 Methods Sample To recruit a sample from a wide range of industries and occupations, we utilized the established snowball sampling technique (Eddleston et al. 2006; Mayer et al. 2009; Morgeson and Humphrey 2006; Zapata et al. 2013). Participants were recruited via the personal network of a PhD student at a major German university. Participants were informed that by partaking in the study, they could enter into a lottery for a 150 € Amazon voucher. The sample included 391 participants. The average age of the participants was 37.53 (SD = 9.74 years) with 56 % of them identifying as female. Forty-four percent of the participants had higher educational qualifications. On average, they had already worked 15.51 years (SD = 10.37 years) under five different superiors (SD = 3.63). Thirty-four percent of participants had a female superior at the time of the survey, compared to male superiors for 66 % of participants. Participants represented heterogeneous professional backgrounds covering 13 different areas of industry, with most participants concentrated in service, health care, and social work. Measures To assess a leader’s horizontal respect as perceived by the subordinates, we used the Respectful Leadership-scale (Van Quaquebeke and Eckloff 2010). The scale contains twelve items such as: ‘‘My leader treats me in a polite manner’’ or ‘‘My leader takes me and my work seriously.’’ To assess subordinates’ vertical respect for their leaders, we used the Appraisal Respect for Leaders scale (Van Quaquebeke et al. 2011a, b). The scale contains six items such as: ‘‘For me, my leader represents a positive role model at the workplace’’ or ‘‘At work I enjoy being able to learn from my leader.’’ To assess self-determination, we used the Basic Needs Satisfaction in Relationship scale by La Guardia et al. (2000). The scale contains nine items such as: ‘‘In the working relationship with my direct leader, I feel like a competent person,’’ ‘‘In the working relationship with my direct leader, I often feel a large personal distance,’’ or ‘‘In the working relationship with my direct leader, I have a say in what happens and I can voice my opinion.’’ To assess subordinates’ job satisfaction, we used the three-item measure of the Job Diagnostic Survey (Hackman and Oldham 1975) such as: ‘‘Generally speaking, I am very satisfied with my job.’’ All scales were presented as five-point Likert scales, with each item’s degree of agreement ranging from 1 (do not agree at all) to 5 (agree completely). Results Table 1 provides the means, standard deviations, internal consistencies, and correlations for all observed variables. All the scales demonstrated good reliabilities (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients range from .70 to .96). All correlations support the predicted directions: Respectful leadership was positively related to both self-determination and job satisfaction. Furthermore, self-determination was positively related to job satisfaction. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to determine whether the concepts are empirically discriminable. Confirmatory Factor Analysis We employed a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of covariances in AMOS 20.0 in order to test various measurement models for the validity of the indicators’ factor structure with respect to their underlying constructs. In order to ensure the existence of four distinct factors, we compared the fit of a correlated four-factor model to the fit of a one-factor model and the fit of an uncorrelated fourfactor model. We used three fit indices to provide unique information about the fit of a model (cf. Hair et al. 1998). 546 C. Decker, N. Van Quaquebeke 123 The correlated four-factor model showed an acceptable fit with the data (v2 = 1260.62; CMIN/df = 3.21; TLI = .90; RMSEA = .08). In contrast, the fit of the one-factor model was very poor (v2 = 2236.03; CMIN/df = 5.52; TLI = .80; RMSEA = .11) as was the uncorrelated four-factor model (v2 = 2434.32; CMIN/df = 6.01; TLI = .78; RMSEA = .11). Moreover, the correlated four-factor model fits the data significantly better than the one-factor model (Dv2 = 975.41, Ddf = 12) and the uncorrelated four-factor model (Dv2 = 1173.70, Ddf = 12). Moderated Mediation Analysis As shown in Table 2, self-determination mediates the relationship between respectful leadership and the direct assessment of job satisfaction (B = .42, p\.01), thus supporting our H1 that respectful leadership relates positively to job satisfaction via self-determination. Proceeding to the moderated mediation test, we standardized all predictors before entering them in the regression (Cohen et al. 2003). As shown in Table 3, the interaction between respectful leadership and vertical respect for leader was significantly related to self-determination (B = .05, p\.05). Figure 2 illustrates the simple slopes at conditions of low (-1 SD) and high (?1 SD) subordinate respect for leader. Both slopes remain positive and significant for the conditions of low and high vertical respect for the leader. The bootstrap results of Table 4 mirror Fig. 2 in showing that the mediation is stronger when subordinates have higher vertical respect for their leaders. Together, these results thus lend support to our H2 in that the relationship between respectful leadership and job satisfaction as mediated by self-determination is strengthened if leaders are vertically respected by their subordinates. Study 2 Methods Sample Participants were recruited by means of a German panel (respondi) that offered credits for participation that could be exchanged for rewards within the panel system. The sample included 518 participants. The average age of the participants was 35.08 (SD = 9.03 years) with 61 % identifying as male and 39 % as female. Thirty-one percent of the participants had higher educational qualifications. On average, they had already worked 15.72 years (SD = 10.00 years) under six different superiors (SD = 5.19). Twenty-eight percent of participants had a female superior at the time of the survey, compared to 72 % of participants with male superiors. Participants represented heterogeneous professional backgrounds covering 33 different areas of industry, with the majority Table 1 Mean scores, standard deviations, internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alphas on the diagonal), and intercorrelations of the variables in Study 1 M SD 1 2 3 45 6 1. Respectful leadership 3.25 .99 (.96) 2. Vertical respect for leader 3.68 1.00 .79** (.90) 3. Self-determination 3.47 .85 .83** .70** (.91) 4. Job satisfaction 3.71 .88 .54** .48** .58** (.70) Controls 5. Subordinate age 37.53 9.74 -.06 -.16** .01 .10* 6. Subordinate sex 1.56 .50 -.02 .00 -.03 -.01 -.21** 7. Leader sex 1.34 .47 .02 .07 .00 .03 -.13** .52** N = 391. Subordinate sex and leader sex: 1 = male, 2 = female * p\.05, ** p \.01, two-tailed Table 2 Results of the mediation, Study 1 Job satisfaction B SE B SE B SE Subordinate age .01** .01 .01** .00 .01** .00 Subordinate sex -.01 .11 .05 .09 .04 .09 Leader sex .08 .11 .03 .09 .04 .09 Respectful leadership .48** .04 .18** .07 Selfdetermination .42** .08 Overall F 1.59 43.5** 43.40** Overall R2 .01 .31 .36 DR2 .01 .30 .05 N = 391. Subordinate sex and leader sex: 1 = male, 2 = female * p\.05, ** p \.01, two-tailed Getting Respect from a Boss You Respect 547 123 coming from the service, governmental, and health care sector. Measures We assessed the variables of horizontal respect, vertical respect for the leader, self-determination, and job satisfaction in the same way as Study 1. Additionally, we asked for turnover intention. To assess subordinates’ intention to leave their current jobs, we used the Intention to Leave scale (Cammann et al. 1983). The scale contains three items such as: ‘‘It is very likely that I will actually leave the organization within the next year.’’ We used a seven-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (do not agree at all) to 7 (agree completely) to assess the degree of agreement for each item. Results Table 5 provides the means, standard deviations, internal consistencies, and correlations for all observed variables in Study 2. All the scales demonstrated good reliabilities (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients range from .80 to .96). All correlations support the predicted directions: Respectful leadership related positively to self-determination, positively to job satisfaction, and negatively to intention to leave. Furthermore, self-determination was positively related to job satisfaction and negatively with intention to leave. We conducted an additional confirmatory factor analysis to determine if the variables are empirically discriminable. Confirmatory Factor Analysis As in Study 1, we tested the validity of the measurement model in a CFA. In order to ensure the existence of five distinct factors, we compared the fit of a correlated fivefactor model to the fit of a one-factor model and the fit of an uncorrelated five-factor model. The correlated five-factor model showed an acceptable fit with the data (v2 = 1313.75; CMIN/df = 2.78; TLI = .93; RMSEA = .06). In contrast, the fit of the one-factor model was very poor (v2 = 4079.20; CMIN/df = 8.24; TLI = .72; RMSEA = .12) as was the fit of the uncorrelated five-factor model (v2 = 3379.77; Table 3 Results of the moderation, Study 1 N = 391. Subordinate sex and leader sex: 1 = male, 2 = female * p\.05, ** p \.01, two-tailed Self-determination B SE B SE B SE B SE Subordinate age .00 .16 .05 .02 .06* .03 .06* .03 Subordinate sex -.08 .10 .01 .06 .02 .06 .01 .06 Leader sex .05 .11 -.02 .06 -.04 .06 -.04 .06 Z respectful leadership .71** .02 .63** .04 .66** .04 Z vertical respect for leader .11** .04 .11** .04 Z respectful leadership 9 Z vertical respect for leader .05* .02 Overall F .20 221.46** 181.78** 153.84** Overall R2 .00 .70 .70 .71 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Low respectful leadership High respectful leadership Self-determination Low vertical respect for leader High vertical respect for leader b=0.61** b=0.70** Fig. 2 Study 1: the effect of vertical respect for the leader on the relationship between respectful leadership and self-determination (*p\.05. **p\.01) Table 4 Moderated mediation: conditional indirect effects model predicting job satisfaction, Study 1 Moderator: vertical respect for leader Conditional indirect effect at mean and ± 1 SD on job satisfaction Boot indirect effect Boot SE BCaL.95 BCaU.95 Low, -1 SD .25 .05 .17 .36 Mean .27 .05 .18 .38 High, ?1 SD .29 .06 .19 .42 548 C. Decker, N. Van Quaquebeke 123 CMIN/df = 6.83; TLI = .77; RMSEA = .11). Moreover, the correlated five-factor model fits the data significantly better than the one-factor model (Dv2 = 2765.45,Ddf = 23) and the uncorrelated five-factor model (Dv2 = 2066.02, Ddf = 23). Moderated Mediation Analysis As shown in Table 6, self-determination mediates the relationship between respectful leadership and both the direct assessment of job satisfaction (B = .42, p\.01) and the assessment via intention to leave (B = .55, p\.01). This finding supports our H1 that respectful leadership relates positively to job satisfaction via self-determination. Proceeding to the moderated mediation test, we again standardized all predictors before entering them in the regression (Cohen et al. 2003). As shown in Table 7, the interaction between respectful leadership and vertical respect for leader was significantly related to self-determination (B = .04, p\.05). Figure 3 illustrates the simple slopes at conditions of low and high respect for the leader. Again, both slopes remain positive and significant for the conditions of low and high vertical respect for the leader. Additionally, as shown in the bootstrap results of Table 8, the mediation is stronger on both dependent variables if subordinates have higher vertical respect for their leaders. These results support our H2, showing that the relationship between respectful leadership and job satisfaction (and intention to leave) as mediated by self-determination is strengthened if the leader is vertically respected by the subordinate. Study 3 Methods We conducted our third study as an experimental online scenario study. The design followed a 2 (Horizontal respect: Disrespectful leadership vs. respectful leadership) 9 2 (Vertical respect for leader: Low vs. high) between-subjects design. Sample Participants were recruited by means of a German panel (meineUmfrage) and incentivized by a lottery for a 50 € Amazon voucher. The precondition for the sampling was Table 5 Mean scores, standard deviations, internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alphas on the diagonal), and intercorrelations of the variables in Study 2 N = 518. Subordinate sex and leader sex: 1 = male, 2 = female * p\.05, ** p \.01, two-tailed M SD 1 2 3 4 5 67 1. Respectful leadership 3.73 .92 (.96) 2. Vertical respect for leader 3.16 .97 .73** (.91) 3. Self-determination 3.47 .82 .84** .68** (.91) 4. Job satisfaction 5.12 1.44 .45** .40** .45** (.84) 5. Intention to leave 2.98 1.66 -.44** -.38** -.46** -.78** (.80) Controls 6. Subordinate age 35.08 9.03 .07 -.01 .10* .07 -.10* 7. Subordinate sex 1.39 .49 .00 .05 .01 .02 .01 -.03 8. Leader sex 1.29 .45 -.02 .04 -.02 -.01 .04 .01 .24** Table 6 Results of the mediation, Study 2 Predictor Job satisfaction Intention to leave B SE B SE B SE B SE B SE B SE Subordinate age .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 -.02* .01 -.01 .01 -.01 .01 Subordinate sex .09 .13 .07 .12 .06 .12 -.02 .15 -.01 .14 .00 .14 Leader sex -.05 .15 -.02 .13 -.01 .13 .15 .17 .12 .15 .11 .15 Respectful leadership .70** .06 .39** .11 -.79** .07 -.38** .13 Self-determination .42** .13 -.55** .15 Overall F 1.01 33.29** 29.31** 2.00 32.50** 29.45** Overall R2 .01 .21 .22 .01 .20 .22 N = 518. Subordinate sex and leader sex: 1 = male, 2 = female * p\.05, ** p \.01, two-tailed Getting Respect from a Boss You Respect 549 123 that all participants had to possess work experience. The sample included 107 participants. The average age of the participants was 44.10 (SD = 11.52 years) with 40 % female and 60 % male participants. Sixty-six percent of the participants had higher educational qualifications. All participants were employed at the time of the survey. On average, they had already worked 22.33 years (SD = 12.59 years), including 18.51 years of work as subordinates (SD = 12.05). Eighty-five percent of participants had a superior at the time of the survey. The range of professional backgrounds covered 24 different areas of industry, the majority of which came from the social, health care, and educational sector. Procedure Participants were assigned via a randomization algorithm to one of the four scenario conditions: (1) low respectful leadership - low vertical respect for leader; (2) low respectful leadership - high vertical respect for leader; (3) high respectful leadership - low vertical respect for leader; and (4) high respectful leadership - high vertical respect for leader. At the beginning of the study, participants were asked to imagine that they were working in an Table 7 Results of the moderation, Study 2 Note. N = 518. Subordinate sex and leader sex: 1 = male, 2 = female. *p\.05, **p\.01, two-tailed Self-determination B SE B SE B SE B SE Subordinate age .08* .04 .03 .02 .04 .02 .03 .02 Subordinate sex .04 .08 .02 .04 .01 .04 .01 .04 Leader sex -.05 .08 -.02 .04 -.03 .04 -.05 .04 Z respectful leadership .69** .02 .61** .03 .63** .03 Z vertical respect for leader .11** .03 .11** .03 Z respectful leadership 9 Z vertical respect for leader .04* .02 Overall F 1.77 316.39** 263.39** 221.93** Overall R2 .01 .71 .72 .72 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Low respectful leadership High respectful leadership Self-determination Low vertical respect for leader High vertical respect for leader b=0.67** b=0.59** Fig. 3 Study 2: The effect of vertical respect for the leader on the relationship between respectful leadership and self-determination (*p\.05. **p\.01) Table 8 Moderated mediation: conditional indirect effects model predicting job satisfaction and intention to leave in Study 2 Moderator: vertical respect for leader Conditional indirect effect at mean and ± 1 SD on job satisfaction Boot indirect effect Boot SE BCaL.95 BCaU.95 Low, -1 SD .25 .07 .11 .40 Mean .26 .08 .11 .42 High, 1 SD .28 .09 .12 .45 Moderator: vertical respect for leader Conditional indirect effect at mean and ±1 SD on intention to leave Boot indirect effect Boot SE BCaL.95 BCaU.95 Low, -1 SD -.33 .08 -.49 -.16 Mean -.35 .09 -.53 -.17 High, 1 SD -.37 .10 -.57 -.18 550 C. Decker, N. Van Quaquebeke 123 organization for a leader who was either described as respectful or disrespectful. The respective descriptions followed the Respectful Leadership Scale (Van Quaquebeke and Eckloff 2010). In keeping with the scenario, participants were told that they should hold the imaginary leader in high/low regard, i.e. either vertically respected the leader or did not. The respective descriptions followed the items of the Respect for Leaders Scale (Van Quaquebeke et al. 2011). Measures Having read the scenarios, participants were asked to rate their self-determination, job satisfaction, and intention to leave with regard to the hypothetical situation. The scales were assessed the same way as in Study 1 and 2. Manipulation Check Two items checked the manipulation of the scenario conditions. The item ‘‘This leader respects me,’’ answered on a bipolar scale (with ‘‘no’’ and ‘‘yes’’ as possible reaction), assessed the extent to which participants perceived the leader as leading respectfully or not. The item ‘‘I have respect for this leader’’ answered on a bipolar scale (with ‘‘no’’ and ‘‘yes’’ as possible reaction), assessed the extent to which participants perceived themselves as feeling vertically respect for the leader or not. Mean scores were subjected to a 2 (respectful leadership: low or high) 9 2 (vertical respect for the leader: low or high) analysis of variance. The main effect of respectful leadership was significant, F(1, 104) = 617.34, p\.00. Participants in the low respectful leadership condition felt less that this leader would respect them (M = 1.02, SD = 0.14) than did participants in the high respectful leadership condition (M = 1.94, SD = 0.24). The main effect of vertical respect for the leader was also significant, F(1, 102) = 34.10, p\.00. Participants in the low vertical respect for leadercondition felt that they would have less respect for this leader (M = 1.21, SD = 0.41) than did participants in the high vertical respect for leader-condition (M = 1.71, SD = .46). Results Descriptive Statistics Table 9 provides the means, standard deviations, and number of participants for all observed variables in Study 3 within the four conditions. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to determine whether the dependent variables assessed within the experiment are empirically discriminable. Confirmatory Factor Analysis As in Study 1 and 2, a CFA was used on the measurement model to test the validity of the indicators’ factor structure with respect to their underlying constructs. In order to ensure discriminant validity of three distinct factors (i.e. self-determination, job satisfaction, and intention to leave), we compared the fit of a correlated three-factor model to the fit of a one-factor model and the fit of an uncorrelated three-factor model. The correlated three-factor model showed an acceptable fit with the data (v2 = 153.07; CMIN/df = 1.82; TLI = .95; RMSEA = .09). In contrast, the fit of the one-factor model was very poor (v2 = 212.51; CMIN/df = 2.36; TLI = .92; RMSEA = .11) as was the fit of the uncorrelated three-factor model (v2 = 601.91; CMIN/df = 6.69; TLI = .68; RMSEA = .23). Moreover, the correlated three-factor model fits the data significantly better than the one-factor model (Dv2 = 59.44, Ddf = 6) and the uncorrelated three-factor model (Dv2 = 448.84, Ddf = 6). Moderated Mediation Analysis As shown in Table 10, self-determination mediates the relationship between respectful leadership and both the direct assessment of job satisfaction (B = .90, p\.01, DR2 = .21) and the indirect assessment via intention to leave (B = -1.07, p\.01, DR2 = .28). This result supports our H1, which posited that respectful leadership relates positively to job satisfaction (and its proxy intention to leave) via self-determination. Figure 4 illustrates the effect of low and high respect for the leader on self-determination as moderated by vertical respect for the leader. Proceeding to the moderated Table 9 Mean scores, standard deviations, and sample size of the variables within the experimental conditions in Study 3 Vertical respect for the leader Low High M SD M SD Low respectful leadership Self-determination 1.86 0.48 1.84 0.74 Job satisfaction 1.56 0.64 1.83 0.97 Intention to leave 4.35 0.92 3.83 1.03 N 31 24 High respectful leadership Self-determination 3.38 0.71 4.18 0.81 Job satisfaction 3.61 0.81 4.29 0.85 Intention to leave 2.52 1.07 1.66 1.04 N 23 29 Getting Respect from a Boss You Respect 551 123 mediation test, as shown in Table 11, the interaction between respectful leadership and vertical respect for leader was significantly related to self-determination (B = .21, p\.01, DR2 = .03). In support of our H2, additional bootstrap results (Table 12) suggest that the relationship between respectful leadership and self-determination is strengthened if the leader is vertically respected by the subordinate. Discussion Two field studies and one experimental study corroborated that working for a respectful leader leads to more job satisfaction and less intention to leave. Both relationships are mediated via self-determination and moderated by subordinates’ vertical respect for their leaders. As such, it seems that respectful leader behavior has to be complemented by leader standing (in terms of subordinate vertical respect) in order to achieve the full effect. As noted in the introduction, though, standing cannot compensate for lack of respectfulness, which leads to interesting practical deliberations we will discuss below. In heeding the call to consider subordinates’ perception of leaders in leadership research (De Cremer et al. 2009), our study shows that subordinates’ vertically respectful attitude toward their leaders contributes to their job satisfaction. However, this connection does not seem to be obvious to subordinates themselves. Indeed, as Van Quaquebeke et al. (2009) point out, subordinates’ biggest wishes involve being led respectfully by their leaders, but they do not seem to set such a high value on working for a respectable leader. This raises the question of how this vertical respect for the leader can be achieved—whether by Table 10 Results of the mediation, Study 3 Predictor Job satisfaction Intention to leave B SE B SE B SE B SE B SE B SE Subordinate age .02 .01 .01 .01 .01** .00 -.02 .01 -.01 .01 -.01 .01 Subordinate sex .08 .28 -.05 .17 -.00 .10 -.22 .30 -.12 -.11 -.16 .14 Respectful leadership 2.28** .16 .51** .17 -2.07** .21 .05 .23 Self-determination .90** .07 -1.07** .09 Overall F 1.80 68.82** 182.44** 1.21 34.69** 90.31** Overall R2 .03 .67 .88 .02 .50 .78 N = 107. Respectful leadership and vertical respect for leader: 0 = low respect, 1 = high respect. Subordinate sex and leader sex: 1 = male, 2 = female * p\.05, ** p \.01, two-tailed 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Low respectful leadership High respectful leadership Self-determination Low vertical respect for the leader High vertical respect for the leader Fig. 4 Study 3: interaction between respectful leadership and vertical respect for the leader on self-determination Table 11 Results of the moderation, Study 3 N = 107. Respectful leadership and vertical respect for leader: 0 = low respect, 1 = high respect. Subordinate sex and leader sex: 1 = male, 2 = female * p\.05, ** p \.01, two-tailed Predictor Self-determination B SE B SE B SE B SE Subordinate age .01 .01 .00 .01 .00 .01 .00 .01 Subordinate sex .06 .25 -.05 .15 -.07 .14 -.11 .14 Z respectful leadership 1.00** .07 .97** .07 .97** .07 Z vertical respect for leader .20** .07 .19** .07 Z respectful leadership 9 Z vertical respect for leader .21** .07 Overall F .38 62.91** 52.05** 47.07** Overall R2 .01 .65 .67 .69 552 C. Decker, N. Van Quaquebeke 123 staffing leadership positions with outstanding candidates, letting subordinates participate in leader promotions, or helping subordinates to focus on their leaders’ strengths (cf. Kluger and Nir 2010). From these considerations an even more fundamental question arises: How are respectful leadership and being respected as a leader interrelated? Some may argue that ‘going soft’ on one’s subordinates results in losing standing with them. However, the present field data suggest that leading respectfully and being respected by subordinates are inherently and positively linked—which should make it easier to profit from both at the same time. Following from the above, recent scholars have called for a more differentiated view on the respect construct in applied research (Clarke 2011; Ellemers et al. 2013; Grover 2013; Langdon 2007; Van Quaquebeke et al. 2007). Responding to this call, the present study explicitly addresses the difference between horizontal and vertical respect as delineated in the philosophical debate. In doing so, we integrate studies that implicitly define respect in a horizontal way and find that this type of respect is critical for job satisfaction (Colquitt 2001; Knight and Leimer 2010; Zenker and Seigis 2012); we also found similar positive outcomes among those studies that implicitly define respect in a vertical way (Prestwich and Lalljee 2009; Van Quaquebeke et al. 2011a). The present results are truly integrative in that they suggest the importance of combining these two types of respect in subordinates’ work experience: Even though we treated both types of respect as largely independent, the correlation patterns still suggest interrelatedness. While the experimental design is able to control such effects, it also identifies a potential opportunity for future research that tackles how one type of respect may inform the other in practice. Lastly, our results provide a novel insight on the dynamic of respect at work by highlighting self-determination as a key motivational mediating mechanism. This is important as most previous studies did not identify an active ingredient of respect at work. A notable exception is the social psychological research by Renger and Simon (2011), who were able to show that equality perceptions seem to be central for the respect experience. This nicely resonates with the present findings on horizontal respect and self-determination, as it speaks to supporting the target in his/her development toward a fully actualized human being, i.e., someone of equal worth. Moreover, the link we established between respectful leadership and self-determination allows scholars to apply the latter concept’s rich research literature (e.g. Gagne´ and Deci 2005) to further investigations on respect in the workplace. Uncovering these close ties may indeed explain why respectful leadership is so desired by subordinates (Van Quaquebeke et al. 2009). Practical Implications As extant research has shown that respectful leadership often remains unrealized despite its many positive consequences (Van Quaquebeke et al. 2009), organizations seem well advised to regularly provide their leadership personnel with feedback concerning their leadership style. While 360- or at least 180-degree feedback seems fairly standard in many of the bigger organizations, only few of them have, to our knowledge, explicitly incorporated the respect facet in the assessment of their leaders. One notable exception is Google, where subordinates are asked in a straightforward fashion whether their managers treat them with respect. As Google’s Senior Vice President of Operations Lazlo Block says: ‘‘These are fundamental things that turn out to be really important in making people feel excited and happy and wanting to go the extra mile for you’’ (Bryant, 2013). While respectful behavior itself might positively motivate, disrespect can demotivate in equal, if not greater proportion. Indeed, there is agreement in the literature that disrespectful behavior hurts psychologically on many levels (e.g. Miller 2001). Unsurprisingly, experiencing disrespect can lead to lower effort expenditure and commitment Table 12 Moderated mediation: conditional indirect effects model predicting job satisfaction and intention to leave in Study 3 Moderator: vertical respect for leader Conditional indirect effect at mean and ±1 SD on job satisfaction Boot indirect effect Boot SE BCaL.95 BCaU.95 Low, -1 SD .68 .10 .49 .87 High, 1 SD 1.06 .10 .88 1.29 Moderator: vertical respect for leader Conditional indirect effect at mean and ± 1 SD on intention to leave Boot indirect effect Boot SE BCaL.95 BCaU.95 Low, -1 SD -.81 .11 -1.07 -.61 High, 1 SD -1.26 .12 -1.55 -1.04 Getting Respect from a Boss You Respect 553 123 (De Cremer 2002; Erez et al. 2009; Sleebos et al. 2006b), increased violence-supportive cognitions (Butler and Maruna 2009), and diminished self-esteem (De Cremer and Tyler 2005). As the present study illustrates, however, the story does not end here. We were able to show that the interaction between respectful leadership and subordinates’ vertical respect for leaders is important for subordinates’ job satisfaction and willingness to stay in the job. Thus, another implication is that organizations should consider staffing subordinates with leaders they can look up to. Previous research has shown that this can be achieved by staffing leaders according to subordinates’ leader prototypes (Van Quaquebeke and Eckloff 2013; Van Quaquebeke et al. 2011a, b, 2014). And as discussed above, training leaders to be respectful may at the same time enhance their standing with subordinates. As a final note of caution, we recognize that a paradox might surface in practice when the ‘star’ employees are appointed to leadership positions: While their co-workers may respect their merits (vertical respect), the increase in status and power may create a rift between them and regular subordinates—perhaps to the point of spurring disrespectful treatment due to lack of empathy (Lammers et al. 2012). In a nutshell, the most respected leaders also have the most power to wax or wane subordinates with their (respectful) leadership. Organizations are thus advised to monitor relevant behaviors and ensure that numeric considerations (i.e. finance, sales, etc.) do not obstruct attention that should be given to the social side. Framed differently, those with good standing should recognize that their standing cannot and should not compensate for disrespect at work (at least with regard to subordinate satisfaction and intention to leave). Limitations and Future Research Some limitations concerning the current studies should be mentioned as they provide avenues for further research. Firstly, the presented Study 1 and Study 2 are based on cross-sectional self-report data. Therefore, common method variance may partly explain some of the results (Podsakoff et al. 2003). However, Spector (2006) found little evidence for common method variance among measures of affective or perceptual constructs. Even so, Evans (1985), McClelland and Judd (1993) argue that common method variance decreases the likelihood of finding moderation effects. The present studies hence provide a rather conservative test of our Hypothesis 2. With that said, the scenario experiment in Study 3 does show the same results, which speaks to their robustness. While it is a vignette study only (as is often the case in leadership research due to validity constraints), tentative evidence indicates that reactions to such scenarios are not much different than to lab-induced manipulations (Robinson and Clore 2001). Moreover, due to its experimental nature, the third study directly addresses the issue of data endogeneity (Antonakis et al. 2010) thereby also strengthening the rationale for the causal direction. Nevertheless, future investigations should consider different methodologies—e.g, by conducting observational studies or asking for co-worker ratings of the subordinates’ vertical respect for the leader or respectful leadership—to see if the present results can be triangulated. Secondly, and related to the above, we encourage future researchers to broaden the scope of dependent variables. We arguably stayed very close to the affective experience of the leader–subordinate re

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Article Summary Name Institution   Article Summary The article by Catrina Decker and Niels Van Quaquebeke presents an integrative evaluation of the interpersonal respect that can exist between a subordinate and their n boss at the workplace. As such, the article seeks to explain the role played by the different classes of interpersonal respect at the workplace between the junior employees and their seniors interact to present an explanation of their job satisfaction under the mediation of self-determination. The article begins by highlighting the value attached by employees to work under a respectful leader in their daily work. It further argues that such a leader's respect for the junior employees tends to be equal or exceeds the monetary rewards earned by the employees or even their job security. Respectful leadership is associated with increased employee identification with their jobs. The paper reiterates the increasing resear...
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