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Chapter 16 - Solutions
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Chapter 16

 

1.      Consider the following beaker which has had its contents (KBr and water) mixed until no further change occurs.

 

Which of the following best describes the contents of the beaker?

A. KBr - solute and water - solvent.

B. Saturated solution.

C. Addition of enough water would produce an unsaturated solution.

D. A heterogeneous mixture.

E. All of the above correctly describe the contents of the beaker.

 

2.

Which of the following correctly applies to the term "solution"?

A. heterogeneous mixture

B. variable composition

C. constant properties

D. dissolved particles can are usually larger than about 10–7 cm

E. exist only in the liquid and gas state

3.

A solution that has a relatively large amount of solute dissolved in it at a particular temperature is said to be _____.

unsaturated

oversaturated

dilute

supersaturated

concentrated

 

4.

Suppose you are given a beaker containing a solution. None of the solute is on the bottom. You drop a small crystal of the solute into the solution, and it readily dissolves into the solution. Which one of the following terms best describes the solution?

concentrated

supersaturated

unsaturated

static

saturated

 

5.

Which of the following substances should be the most soluble in ethanol (CH3CH2OH)?

CH4

NaCl

Mg3(PO4)2

CH2Cl2

O2

 

6.

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

A. The roles of solute and solvent are not always clearly defined in the solution of one liquid in another.

B. When water and carbon tetrachloride are in the same test tube, a denser layer of carbon tetrachloride forms beneath a less dense layer of water. The liquids are said to be miscible.

C. A solution of a given concentration that is saturated at one temperature may be unsaturated at another temperature.

D. Dilute nitric acid and dilute sulfuric acid may or may not have the same concentration.

E. The concentration of solute in a supersaturated solution is greater than the normal solubility limit.

 

7.

"Like dissolves like" essentially means:

Solids won't dissolve in liquids.

Ionic compounds will only dissolve in molten salts.

Ionic compounds won't vaporize easily.

Polar solutes will dissolve in polar solvents.

 

8.

In carbon steel, carbon is the _____ and iron is the _______.

solute, solution

solvent, solute

solute, solvent

solution, solute

 

9.

dentify the incorrect statement about events that occur between the time excess solid solute is first introduced to a liquid solvent and the time when the solution becomes saturated. Assume that the surface area of the solute remains constant throughout the process.

A. The rate of concentration change is zero when the solution is saturated.

B. The net rate of concentration change is greatest at the beginning of the process.

C. The rate of dissolving is greater than the rate of crystallization when the solution is one-half saturated.

D. If temperature remains constant, the rate of dissolving is constant.

E. If temperature remains constant, the rate of crystallization remains constant.

 

10.

When a saturated solution is in equilibrium with undissolved solute, ...

A. the solution separates into layers.

B. dissolving and crystallization stop.

C. the quantity of dissolved solute equals the quantity of undissolved solute.

D. the concentration of the solution remains constant.

E. the temperature increases until more solute dissolves.

 

11. Which of the following will always cause the greatest increase in the solubility of a gas in a liquid?

increasing the pressure of the gas above the liquid and lowering the liquid temperature

decreasing the pressure of the gas above the liquid and lowering the liquid temperature

increasing the pressure of the gas above the liquid and raising the liquid temperature

decreasing the pressure of the gas above the liquid with no temperature change of the liquid

decreasing the pressure of the gas above the liquid and raising the liquid temperature

12. Rank the following compounds according to increasing solubility in water.

  1. CH3–CH2–CH2–CH3
  2. CH3–CH2–O–CH2–CH3
  3. CH3–CH2–OH
  4. CH3–OH

I < III < IV < II

I < II < IV < III

III < IV < II < I

I < II < III < IV

None of these is correct.

 

13.

The structures of cyclohexane and benzene are shown below.

cyclohexane

benzene

It is logical to expect that these liquids are...

A. miscible because of their similar structures and sizes.

B. miscible because they contain the same number of carbon atoms.

C. immiscible because benzene, with half as many hydrogen atoms, has less hydrogen bonding than cyclohexane.

D. immiscible because one molecule is polar and the other nonpolar.

E. immiscible because both molecules have ring structures

 

 

14.

Consider the graph shown below.

 


Which substance shows the smallest increase in solubility as the temperature is increased?

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

E. E

 

15.

To determine the mass percent of a solution's composition, what do you need to know?

Mass of solute and mass of solution

Volume of solute and mass of solution

Volume of solute and volume of solution

Mass of solute and volume of solution

 

16.

 

Find the mass percent of CuSO4 in a solution whose density is 1.30 g/mL and whose molarity is 1.36 M.

2.66%

16.7%

1.77%

83.3%

None of these choices are correct.

 

17.

If 8.73 g Ca(NO3)2 is dissolved in enough water to make 0.750 L of solution, what is the molar concentration of Ca(NO3)2?

11.6 M

1.16×10-2 M

7.09×10-2 M

25.1 M

0.114 M

 

18.


What is the concentration of chloride ions in a 0.20 M FeCl3 solution?

6.7×10-2 M

0.80 M

0.60 M

0.20 M

0.40 M

 

19.

What concentration unit is necessary for the calculation of vapor pressure lowering of a solvent?

mass fraction of solvent

molarity of solute

mole fraction of solvent

molality of solvent

mole fraction of solute

 

20.

 

75.0 mL of water is added to 12.9 mL of 0.250 M KMnO4. What is the concentration of the diluted solution?

A. 1.70 M

B. 1.45 M

C. 0.0581 M

D. 0.0430 M

E. 0.0367 M

 

21.

 

What volume of hydrogen gas, measured at STP, is produced in the reaction of excess aluminum with 50.0 mL of 0.935 M hydrochloric acid?

A. 0.531 L

B. 1.06 L

C. 2.12 L

D. 0.0474 L

E. 0.0237 L

 

22.

Write the balanced equation for the reaction of aluminum chloride with silver nitrate and determine what volume of 0.107 M silver nitrate is required to precipitate all the chloride from 15.00 mL of 0.0500 M aluminum chloride.

A. 45.0 mL

B. 7.01 mL

C. 21.0 mL

D. 63.1 mL

E. 15.0 mL

 

23.

Potassium hydrogen phthalate is used as a primary standard in finding the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide by the reaction KHC8H4O4 + NaOH → NaKC8H4O4 + H2O. What is the molarity of the base if 32.75 mL is required to titrate 1.732 g of the primary standard?

A. 0.5189 M

B. 0.2590 M

C. 1.732 M

D. 3.861 M

E. 3.275 M

 

24.

The citric acid in a lemon juice sample was neutralized by titration with NaOH solution. If 5.00 mL of lemon juice required 47.8 mL of 0.121 M NaOH for neutralization, what was the molarity of the citric acid in the lemon juice? The reaction is 3 NaOH + H3C6H5O7 → 3 H2O + Na3C6H5O7.

A. 1.16 M

B. 3.47 M

C. 0.110 M

D. 0.386 M

E. 0.329 M

 

25.

A 50.0 mL hydrochloric acid sample is analyzed for its concentration by titration. Determine the concentration of the sample, given that it requires 21.50 mL of 0.102 M sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize the acid.

A. 0.105 M

B. 1.05 M

C. 22.8 M

D. 0.0439 M

E. 0.237 M

 

How many of the following help determine whether or not a solution forms?

  1. the polarities of the solute and solvent
  2. the densities of the solute and solvent
  3. the probability of the mixed state (of the solution)
  4. the energies needed for the solution formation to occur
  5. the state of matter of the solute (solid, liquid, gas)

h

3

1

2

5

4

 

Which of the following statements concerning the solubility of a solute is/are correct?

(1) The dissolution of a gas in a liquid is an endothermic process.
(2) The solubility of a gas in a liquid decreases with increasing temperature.
(3) The dissolution of a gas in a liquid is an exothermic process.

2 and 3

1 and 2

3 only

2 only

1 only

 

The solubility of a gas usually increases with increasing temperature.

True

False

 

How many of the following help determine whether or not a solution forms?

  1. the polarities of the solute and solvent
  2. the densities of the solute and solvent
  3. the probability of the mixed state (of the solution)
  4. the energies needed for the solution formation to occur
  5. the state of matter of the solute (solid, liquid, gas)

3

1

2

5

4

 

 

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Chapter 16 - Solutions
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