Which of Émile Durkheim’s types of social solidarity characterizes modern life?
Why is it so difficult to track the crime rate over time?
Sociologists and criminologists do not use common methodologies.
We lack good data on criminal activity prior to 1990.
The way particular crimes are defined changes over time.
Most crimes are unreported.
After serving a long prison sentence for grand theft auto, Charles stole another car. This is an example of:
David Rosenhan sent some of his students to a psychiatric hospital, saying they were “hearing voices.” Each pseudo-patient was admitted and diagnosed with a mental disorder. He was illustrating ________ theory.
Although deviant behavior can be threatening and damaging, paradoxically it also:
can never be precisely defined due to constantly changing social construction.
strengthens society by exercising mechanisms that preserve cohesion.
benefits as many people as it harms.
fizzles out once it becomes too damaging.
Jennifer goes out at night with a spray can and writes on a stop sign. She successfully vandalizes for the first time. Labeling theorists would call this ________ deviance.
Why is the United States best described as having a mix of mechanical and organic sanctions?
Some states have a more organic division of labor than others.
The United States applies mechanical sanctions in some contexts and organic sanctions in other contexts.
The United States has not yet become a fully modern society.
It is not a mix; it is best described as fully organic.
According to Howard S. Becker, why do marijuana smokers enjoy using the drug?
They are covering up or trying to escape some other deviant tendencies.
They are genetically predisposed to enjoying its effects.
They enjoy provoking disapproval in others.
They engage in a social process of learning to define the experience as fun and pleasurable.
Punishments that are based on the usually unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership are known as unspoken rules and as:
informal social sanctions.
formal social sanctions.
Tracy rejects the goals of owning a big house and earning lots of money, which she feels are defined by society. However, she still works hard and follows the rules. Robert Merton would classify Tracy as a(n):
How does social context affect crime, according to the broken windows theory?
Broken windows provide easy access to places in which to use drugs and engage in prostitution.
Evidence of disorder, such as broken windows, sends a signal that it’s acceptable to engage in further deviant behaviors such as vandalism.
If the local economy doesn’t provide enough jobs for residents, crime becomes the easiest way to get by.
Criminals often start with petty vandalism to build their confidence. They then work their way up to more serious and dangerous crimes.
Prisons and military boot camps are examples of what Erving Goffman calls:
the Rockefeller drug laws.
J. P. Morgan trader Bruno Iksil placed a giant risky trade and lost $6 billion for the bank. His boss and assistant conspired to cover up the losses by filing false reports. These crimes are known as:
A policy of imprisoning and monitoring criminal offenders for committing crimes in an effort to prevent them from committing more crimes is known as:
The student guards in Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment behaved the way they did because:
they believed the“inmates” had actually committed crimes and deserved punishment.
they were simply following orders from a legitimate authority figure, who in this case was their professor.
they experienced the Lucifer effect, in which they were affected by social surroundings and cultural expectations.
they were malnourished.
In the past, a murderer might have been executed with the same weapon she used to commit the crime. According to Michel Foucault, this is an example of what?
violence against the body
violence against the soul
Picking your nose in public is an example of which type of deviance?
Tax evasion is an example of which of the following types of crime, as defined by sociologists?
Which of the following is a major difference between the symbolic interactionist (SI) and functionalist perspectives on deviance?
SI takes a micro or close-up look at individuals; functionalism looks at macro-level social systems.
SI accepts deviance in society; functionalism says deviance must be eliminated.
SI argues that deviance plays a symbolic role in society that helps reinforce cohesion; functionalism argues that deviance threatens social cohesion.
SI sees deviance as negative; functionalism does not judge it.
A person who desires a big mansion and the perfect “American dream” lifestyle, but sells illegal drugs to achieve this, is known by Robert Merton as a(n):
What were the types of suicide described by Émile Durkheim?
conformist, altruistic, anomic, and recidivist
egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic
egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and recidivist
egoistic, altruistic, recidivist, and fatalistic
Mia is a correctional officer who wants to understand the rising prison population. Which group is fueling the increase seen in this chart?
women committing extreme violence
repeat nonviolent offenders
juveniles who are being wrongly sentenced as adults
first-time incarcerations for drug-related crimes
A crime such as burglary is also known as which type of deviance?
Which of Émile Durkheim’s types of social solidarity characterized premodern life?
A drug dealer stops selling drugs after learning on the street that another dealer was caught and punished. This is an example of which of the following?
In his book Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys (2011), Victor Rios questions whether:
aggressive policing in inner-city neighborhoods actually decreases juvenile crime.
replacing teachers in inner-city schools with police officers decreases crime.
installing cameras at every street corner decreases crime in inner cities.
replacing police officers with social workers decreases crime in inner cities.
The functionalist perspective argues that deviance:
will disappear as societies evolve.
is necessary for a society’s survival.
is a symptom of other dysfunctions in society.
makes societies less functional.
The 2003 U.S. Supreme Court case of Lawrence v. Texas:
applied the death penalty to the crime of selling illegal drugs.
criminalized littering, punishable by a $500 fine.
affirmed Texas’s criminalization of homosexual sex.
struck down Texas’s criminalization of homosexual sex.
Neighborhood watch groups are examples of what urban theorist Jane Jacobs called:
the eyes and ears of the streets.
formal social sanctions.
The common faith or set of social norms by which a society and its members abide is defined by Émile Durkheim as:
division of labor.
- This solution has not purchased yet.
- Submitted On 19 Jul, 2018 04:26:02