General definition and value of “management theories”Classical Management Theories:Common Assumption: People at work rationally consider opportunities made available to them and do whatever is necessary to achieve the greatest personal and monetary gain.Scientific Management: emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support.#1: Scientific Management- Frederick Taylor (United States early 1900s)-Time and Motion studies: (effieciency) For every job have a “science” that includes rulesof motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions.-Job Simplification: (expertise) carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job.-Work Standards and Incentive pay: (employee motivation and compensation) Carefully train workers to do the job and give them the proper incentives to cooperate with the job “science”-Employee selection and training: (employee support) Support workers by carefully planning their work and by smoothing the way as they go about their jobs.Bureaucratic Organization: A rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order, and legitimate authority.#2 Bureaucratic Organization- Max Weber (German Industry early 1900s)-Division of Labor: (specific skills) Jobs are well defined, and workers become highly skilled at performing them.-Logic and Order: (organizational structure) Authority and responsibility are well defined for each position, and each position reports to higher level of authority.-Impersonal Systems: (by the book/Formal rules and authority) Written guidelines direct behavior and decisions in jobs, and written files are kept for historical record.-Merit-Based Management: (performance) Rules and procedures apply to everyone with no one receiving preferential treatment. Also workers are selected and promoted on ability, competency, and performance, and managers are career employees of the organization. You get promoted based on your level of merit.Gender-based leadership (interactive) -Is it possible for women to be as effective in all management positions as their male counterparts? YES.-Gender Similarity Hypothesis: Males and Females have similar psychological properties.-Interactive Leadership: (More Effective): Are strong communicators and act democratic and participative with others. They approach problems and decisions through teamwork, show respect for others, and share power and information.Power and Empowerment-Leadership requires power1. Organizational power is essential to leadership success.2. Leadership is the ability to influence and motivate others for the good of the organization.3. Leaders gain power from the positions they hold and from their own personal qualities.-Positional Power: Based on things managers can offer to others
1. Reward Power: “If you do what I ask, I’ll give you a reward.” It is the capacity to offer something of value as a means of influencing others.2. Coercion Power: “If you don't do what I ask, I’ll punish you.” It is the capacity topunish or withhold positive outcomes as a means of influencing other people.3. Legitimate Power: “Because I am the boss; you must do as I ask.” It is the capacity to influence other people by virtue of formal authority, or the rights of office.-Personal Power: Based on how managers are viewed by others1. Expertise Power: “as a source of special knowledge and information.” it is the capacity to influence other people because of specialized knowledge.2. Referent Power (influence): “as a person with whom others like to identify.” it isthe capacity to influence other people because of their desire to identify personally with you.-Gaining Power1. Expertise-Develop your skills2. Attraction-Build Relationships by Intent3. Effort-Step Forward; be action oriented; smile; show enthusiasm 4. Position-Improve your current position: improve credibility, raise visibility, and network for centrality.-Uses of Power1. Organizational Power: The ability to make things happen for the good of the organization as a whole.2. Empowerment: Your success as a manager depends on how much power you can give to all of your employees.-Empowerment: enables others to gain and use decision-making power.-**Management power is increased by giving power to employees** (Empowerment)-Encourage employee initiative-Build team concepts-Develop employees’ decision skills -Allow mistakes to encourage growth-Recognize employee achievementsLearning Organizations: A learning organization continuously changes and improves, using the lessons of experience. Learning Organizations are encouraging and helping all members to learn continuously, while emphasizing information sharing, teamwork, empowerment, and participation.In-class self-development assessments (X-Y, T-P, E I, LOC )T-P Leadership Model: T=Task Oriented P=People OrientedUnderstand the principles of learning individuals:(1) Long-term future-oriented, (2) value self and others,(3) True to your values, (4) open to change
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- Submitted On 15 Jul, 2018 04:10:02