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PHIL 347 Critical Thinking Final Exam Complete Solution 100%
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Question 1.1. (TCOs 1, 2) Determine whether the following passage is an argument. 
Mark is the newest member of the requisitions department. The requisitions department oversees the purchasing of all goods, services, and capital equipment for the entire company. (Points : 5)
       Argument
       Not an argument because there are no claims or only one claim
       Not an argument because none of the claims offers a reason for the other
       Not an argument because the reasons explain rather than prove the other claims


Question 2.2. (TCOs 1, 2) Determine whether the following passage is an argument.  
Either you are planning to vote in the fall election or you don’t really want to improve the politics of the local community. (Points : 5)
       Argument
       Not an argument because there are no claims or only one claim
       Not an argument because none of the claims offers a reason for the other
       Not an argument because the reasons explain rather than prove the other claims


Question 3.3. (TCOs 2, 3) Choose the best answer. 
Don’t drive over the speed limit. It’s against the law. You don’t want a speeding ticket. 
Which of the following claims represents the conclusion of this argument? (Points : 5)
       Driving over the speed limit is against the law.
       You don’t want a speeding ticket.
       You should not drive over the speed limit.


Question 4.4. (TCOs 2, 3) Choose the best answer. 
Healthy. Delicious. Drink Ovaltine! 
Which of the following claims represents the implied conclusion of this argument? (Points : 5)
       Ovaltine is healthy.
       Ovaltine is delicious
       You should drink Ovaltine.
       None; this is not an argument.


Question 5.5. (TCOs 3, 4) Identify the kind of argument. 
Using a lemon when cooking is like using a lime. Given that limes can be added to bland foods to give them some zest, lemons, too, will give zest to bland foods.(Points : 5)
       Analogical argument
       Categorical argument
       Truth-functional argument
       Causal argument


Question 6.6. (TCOs 3, 4) Identify the kind of argument.
Unemployment is probably rising throughout most California counties, for the reason that it has been rising in Kern and Los Angeles counties. (Points : 5)
       Truth-functional argument
       Analogical argument
       Categorical argument
       Inductive generalization


Question 7.7. (TCO 3, 4) Identify the kind of argument. 
Learning to think critically is like learning to play the piano. Given that you have to practice a lot to be good at playing the piano, you must practice a lot to be a critical thinker. (Points : 5)
       Causal argument
       Truth-functional argument
       Inductive generalization
       Analogical argument


Question 8.8. (TCOs 2, 3, 5) Relate to the proper terminology.
What evaluative language should you use for inductive generalizations? (Points : 5)
       Valid/invalid; cogent/uncogent
       Valid/invalid; sound/unsound
       Strong/weak; cogent/uncogent
       Strong/weak; sound/unsound


Question 9.9. (TCOs 2, 3, 5) Relate to the proper terminology.
What evaluative language should you use for categorical arguments? (Points : 5)
       Valid/invalid; cogent/uncogent
       Valid/invalid; sound/unsound
       Strong/weak; cogent/uncogent
       Strong/weak; sound/unsound


Question 10.10. (TCO 4) Select the answer that represents the proper standard form for the following statement.
Whenever the phone rings, the dog barks. (Points : 5)
       All times that the dog barks are times the phone rings.
       All times that the phone rings are times that the dog barks.
       Some of the times the phone rings are times that the dog barks.


Question 11.11. (TCO 4) Select the answer that represents the proper standard form for the following statement.
Only students are allowed access to the recreation center. (Points : 5)
       Some people who are allowed access to the recreations center are students.
       All people who are allowed access to the recreation center are students.
       All people who are allowed access to the recreations center are not students.


Question 12.12. (21. (TCO 4) Select the answer that represents the proper standard form for the following statement.
If you want to be a nursing major, then you must take an anatomy class. (Points : 5)
       Valid/invalid; cogent/uncogent
       Valid/invalid; sound/unsound
       All people who want to be nursing majors are people who must take an anatomy class.
       Strong/weak; sound/unsound


Question 13.13. (TCO 4) Choose the correct translation for each of the following compound claims. 
You cannot enter the chess tournament (C) unless you are ranked (R). (Points : 5)
       R • ~ C
       C  R
       ~ C  R
       ~ R  ~ C


Question 14.14. (TCO 4) Choose the correct translation for each of the following compound claims. 
Neither a sculpture (S) nor a painting (P) will be exhibited in the new gallery. (Points : 5)
       S • P
       ~ (S • P)
       ~ S  ~ P
       ~ (S  P)


Question 15.15. (TCOs 3, 5) Which inductive generalization is stronger? (Points : 5)
       In a psychology class experiment to determine how many students suffer from test anxiety, student researchers visited three freshman-level courses and had students fill out survey questionnaires. Because 53% of respondents admitted to having test anxiety, it’s safe to conclude that about half of all students on campus have test anxiety.
       In a psychology class experiment to determine how many students suffer from test anxiety, student researchers visited one freshman-level course, one sophomore-level course, and one senior course and had students fill out survey questionnaires. Because 53% of respondents admitted to having test anxiety, it’s safe to conclude that about half of all students on campus have test anxiety.


Question 16.16. (TCOs 3, 5) Which analogical argument is stronger? (Points : 5)
       Grease, oil, road tar, and paint thinner are all flammable. Thus, paint thinner is a refined product because grease, oil, and road tar are refined products.
       Grease, oil, and paint thinner are all flammable. Thus, paint thinner is a refined product since grease and oil are refined products.


Question 17.17. (TCOs 3, 5) Which causal argument is stronger? (Points : 5)
       Three local coffee houses have experienced an uptick in business this quarter. The cause of this welcome change appears to be the new poetry reading events each has added.
       Three local coffee houses have experienced an uptick in business this quarter. The cause of this welcome change appears to be the new poetry reading events each has added. Because the poetry readings are the only possible cause all three coffee houses have in common, it must have been the cause.


Question 18.18. (TCO 6) Identify the fallacy.
The Chinese government should encourage freedom of speech because doing so would be a good idea. (Points : 5)
       Begging the question
       Appeal to ignorance
       Strawman
       No fallacy committed


Question 19.19. (TCO 6) Identify the fallacy.
Second Amendment fans oppose every effort the government makes to restrict or regulate the sale of guns and ammunition, but how can they defend the view that the government has no role to play in our society? Think about it for a minute: Don’t we need government to defend our borders? Don’t we need government to regulate food and drugs? (Points : 5)
       Strawman
       Begging the question
       No fallacy committed
       Red herring


Question 20.20. (TCO 6) Identify the fallacy.
Hi, I’m Nick Jonas. Music inspires creativity and keeps kids in school, but there are thousands of kids without musical education. Don’t let our music be silenced! Check out VH1 Save the Music. (Points : 5)
       No fallacy committed
       Ad hominem
       Appeal to illegitimate authority
       Begging the question

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PHIL 347 Critical Thinking Final Exam Complete Solution 100%
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Question 1.1. (TCOs 1, 2) Determine whether the following passage is an argument. Mark is the newest member of the requisitions department. The requisitions department oversees the purchasing of all goods, services, and capital equipment for the...
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