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Chapter 1 Test A MULTIPLE CHOICE
INSTRUCTIONS: The following selections relate to distinguishing arguments from nonarguments and identifying conclusions. Select the best answer for each.
1. There appears to be a growing happiness gap between men and women. Women today are working more and relaxing less, while men are working less and relaxing more. Forty years ago a typical woman spent 40 minutes more per week than the typical man performing an activity considered unpleasant. Today, with men working less, the gap is 90 minutes and growing.
a. Argument; conclusion: Today ... the gap is 90 minutes and growing.
b. Nonargument.
c. Argument; conclusion: Forty years ago ... an activity considered unpleasant. d. Argument; conclusion: There appears to be ... between men and women.
e. Argument; conclusion: Women today are working more and relaxing less.
ANS: D PTS: 2
2. Lead is toxic, but do you know why? Lead is toxic mainly because it preferentially replaces other metals in biochemical reactions. In so doing it interferes with the proteins that regulate blood pressure (which can cause development delays in children and high blood pressure in adults), heme production (which can lead to anemia), and sperm production. Lead also displaces calcium in the reactions that transmit electrical impulses in the brain, which diminishes the ability to think and recall information.
Anne Marie Helmstine, "Your Guide to Chemistry"
a. Argument; conclusion: It interferes with the proteins ... and sperm production.
b. Argument; conclusion: Lead is toxic.
c. Nonargument.
d. Argument; conclusion: It preferentially replaces other metals in biochemical reactions.
e. Argument; conclusion: Lead also displaces calcium ... recall information.
ANS: C PTS: 2
3. Aristotle focused on clarifying the concept of virtue itself. He argued that it was virtuous to choose the proper amount of emotion and/or action called for in a particular situation and that extremes of emotion and action were vices. In all communities there are some men of practical wisdom who have the capacity to judge wisely. Aristotle argued that they have the capacity to follow the "right rule" whatever the situation.
David Cooper, Value Pluralism and Ethical Choice
a. Argument; conclusion: In all communities ... capacity to judge wisely.
b. Argument; conclusion: Aristotle focused on clarifying the concept of virtue itself.
c. Argument; conclusion: They have the capacity to follow ... the situation.
d. Argument; conclusion: He argued that it was virtuous ... were vices
e. Nonargument.
ANS: E PTS: 2
4. Illegal immigrants pay local sales taxes, and many of them also pay state, local, and federal income tax and Social Security tax. They also purchase items from local merchants, increasing the amount these merchants pay in taxes. In addition, they work for low salaries, which increases the earnings of their employers and the amount of taxes these employers pay. Thus, it is not correct to say that illegal immigrants contribute nothing to the communities in which they live.
a. Argument; conclusion: It is not correct to say ... communities in which they live.
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b. Argument; conclusion: They work for low salaries ... these employers pay. c. Argument; conclusion: Illegal immigrants pay ... Social Security tax.
d. Argument; conclusion: They also purchase items ... pay in taxes.
e. Nonargument.
ANS: A PTS: 2
5. Numerous studies have indicated that women of color, black women in particular, are over-arrested, over-indicted, and over-sentenced. African-American women are seven times more likely to be arrested for prostitution than women of other ethnic groups. Black women have received significantly longer sentences for crimes against property and served longer periods in prison. For both murder and drug offenses, Euroamerican women ended up serving one-third less time for the same offenses than black women.
Nancy Kurshan, "Women and Imprisonment in the U.S."
a. Argument; conclusion: African-American women ... other ethnic groups.
b. Nonargument.
c. Argument; conclusion: For both murder and drug offenses ... black women.
d. Argument; conclusion: Numerous studies have indicated ... over-sentenced.
e. Argument; conclusion: Black women have received ... longer periods in prison.
ANS: B PTS: 2
6. It's even more important these days that your computer be protected by a firewall. There are criminal elements lurking in the shadows of cyberspace who send out probes to detect unprotected PCs. Once a vulnerable computer is found, these criminals install software that assists them in committing identity theft and fencing stolen IDs. They also defraud online advertisers by using these zombie computers to visit pay-per-click ads.
a. Argument; conclusion: There are criminal elements ... to detect unprotected PCs. b. Argument; conclusion: Once a vulnerable computer ... fencing stolen IDs.
c. Nonargument.
d. Argument; conclusion: They also defraud ... to visit pay-per-click ads.
e. Argument; conclusion: It's even more important ... protected by a firewall. ANS: E PTS: 2
7. The earth is of interest to astronomy for many reasons. Nearly all observations must be made through the atmosphere, and the phenomena of the upper atmosphere and the magnetosphere reflect the state of interplanetary space. The earth is also the most important object of comparison for planetologists.
Hannu Karttunen, et al., Fundamental Astronomy
a. Argument; conclusion: The phenomena ... state of interplanetary space.
b. Argument; conclusion: The earth is also ... for planetologists.
c. Argument; conclusion: The earth is of interest to astronomy.
d. Nonargument.
e. Argument; conclusion: Nearly all observations ... through the atmosphere.
ANS: C PTS: 2
8. If the trade in tiger products is banned, tiger reserves are guarded by well equipped staff, communities abutting tiger habitat are given a stake in protecting tigers, and the makers of traditional medicines can be persuaded that tiger parts are not needed, then tiger poaching will be halted, habitat and life sustaining prey will be restored, and the immanent extinction of tigers in the wild will be averted.
a. Nonargument.
b. Argument; conclusion: The trade in tiger products is banned.
c. Argument; conclusion: Tiger poaching will be halted.
d. Argument; conclusion: The makers of traditional medicines ... not needed.
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e. Argument; conclusion: Tiger poaching will be halted ... will be averted. ANS: A PTS: 2
9. Humans are biological organisms. To understand our behavior and mental processes, we need to understand their biological underpinnings, starting with the cellular level, the neuron. How we feel, learn, remember, and think all stem from neuronal activity. So, how a neuron works and how neurons communicate are crucial pieces of information in solving the puzzle of human behavior and mental processing.
Richard Griggs, Psychology: A Concise Introduction
a. Argument; conclusion: To understand our behavior ... the neuron.
b. Argument; conclusion: Humans are biological organisms.
c. Argument; conclusion: How we feel ... neuronal activity.
d. Argument; conclusion: How a neuron works ... mental processing.
e. Nonargument.
ANS: D PTS: 2
10. Viruses are acellular entities too small to be seen with a light microscope. They are composed of a nucleic acid and a few proteins. Viruses replicate themselves and display other properties of living organisms only when they have invaded living cells. Indeed, some viruses can be crystallized and stored in a container on a shelf for years, but they retain the capacity to invade cells and cause disease.
Jacquelyn C. Black, Microbiology: Principles and Explorations
a. Argument; conclusion: They are composed of a nucleic acid and a few proteins.
b. Nonargument.
c. Argument; conclusion: Viruses are acellular entities ... microscope.
d. Argument; conclusion: Indeed, some viruses can be crystallized ... cause disease.
e. Argument; conclusion: Viruses replicate themselves ... invaded living cells.
ANS: B PTS: 2
11. Harnessing the clean, abundant energy of the sun and wind is critical to solving the global warming problem. Technological advances have brought the cost of electricity generated by the wind down by 82 percent since 1981. Solar energy technology has made remarkable progress as new photovoltaic cells have been developed to convert even greater amounts of sunlight directly into electricity. Today the costs of wind and solar power are becoming competitive with dirty coal-fired plants.
Sierra Club, "Global Warming Solutions"
a. Argument; conclusion: Today the costs of wind ... dirty coal-fired plants.
b. Argument; conclusion: Technological advances ... by 82 percent since 1981.
c. Argument; conclusion: Harnessing the clean ... the global warming problem.
d. Nonargument.
e. Argument; conclusion: Solar energy technology ... directly into electricity.
ANS: D PTS: 2
12. It is likely that innocent prisoners in this country have been executed for crimes they did not commit. From 1973 until 2007, 124 death row inmates have been exonerated. In many of these cases DNA evidence played a crucial role. Yet, in that same time frame, more than 1000 prisoners were executed. For many of these prisoners no DNA evidence was available. If such evidence had been available, how may more would have been exonerated?
a. Argument; conclusion: In many of these cases ... played a crucial role.
b. Nonargument.
c. Argument; conclusion: From 1973 ... have been exonerated.
d. Argument; conclusion: For many of these prisoners ... was available.
e. Argument; conclusion: It is likely that innocent prisoners ... they did not commit.
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ANS: E PTS: 2
13. Some over-the-counter medicines should not be given to very young children. For example, cold medicines contain decongestants and antihistamines. These substances raise blood pressure and heart rate. If an overdose should occur in a young child, the result can be fatal.
a. Argument; conclusion: Some over-the-counter medicines ... very young children.
b. Argument; conclusion: These substances raise blood pressure and heart rate.
c. Argument; conclusion: If an overdose ... the result can be fatal.
d. Argument; conclusion: Cold medicines contain decongestants and antihistamines. e. Nonargument.
ANS: A PTS: 2
14. The world-wide disappearance of frogs may be the result of agricultural runoff. Scientists have shown that runoff rich in fertilizer causes a pronounced increase in the algae of lakes and ponds. Snails then gorge themselves on the algae, causing parasites living inside them to produce huge quantities of eggs. When the eggs hatch, the parasites infect young frogs, causing severe deformation of their limbs.
a. Nonargument.
b. Argument; conclusion: Snails then gorge themselves ... huge quantities of eggs. c. Argument; conclusion: The world-wide disappearance ... agricultural runoff.
d. Argument; conclusion: When the eggs hatch ... severe deformation of their limbs. e. Argument; conclusion: Scientists have shown ... in the algae of lakes and ponds.
ANS: C PTS: 2
15. Little is known of the Greek physician Hippocrates, who lived around 400 B.C. Nevertheless, the writings attributed to him have provided a number of principles underlying modern medical practice. One of his most famous contributions, the Hippocratic Oath, is the foundation of contemporary medical ethics. It requires the physician to swear that he or she will help the sick, refrain from intentional wrongdoing, and keep confidential all matters pertaining to the doctor-patient relationship.
William C. Cockerham, Medical Sociology
a. Argument; conclusion: The writings attributed to him ... medical practice.
b. Nonargument.
c. Argument; conclusion: It requires the physician ... doctor-patient relationship.
d. Argument; conclusion: One of his most famous contributions ... medical ethics.
e. Argument; conclusion: Little is known ... who lived around 400 B.C.
ANS: B PTS: 2
16. Two million children have been killed in armed conflicts in the last decade. Three times as many have been injured or permanently disabled. Millions of others have been forced to take part in or witness horrifying acts of violence. In countless cases the impact of armed conflict on children's lives remains invisible. The children themselves may be removed from the public, in institutions, or survive as victims of prostitution. But those who have lost parents often experience humiliation, rejection and discrimination, and suffer in silence as their self-esteem crumbles.
Child Rights Information Network
a. Nonargument.
b. Argument; conclusion: Two million children ... in the last decade.
c. Argument; conclusion: But those who have lost parents ... self-esteem crumbles.
d. Argument; conclusion: In countless cases ... remains invisible.
e. Argument; conclusion: Three times as many ... permanently disabled.
ANS: A PTS: 2
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17. An element is a collection of atoms of the same type. Each atom contains three fundamental particles´úža proton, a neutron, and an electron. The protons and neutrons are in the center, or nucleus, of the atom. Protons have a positive charge, while neutrons have no electric charge. The electrons have a negative charge and orbit about the nucleus at a specific distance.
Edward F. Albin, Earth Science Made Easy
a. Argument; conclusion: An element is a collection of atoms of the same type.
b. Argument; conclusion: The electrons have a negative charge ... specific distance.
c. Nonargument.
d. Argument; conclusion: Each atom contains ... an electron.
e. Argument; conclusion: The protons and neutrons ... of the atom.
ANS: C PTS: 2
INSTRUCTIONS: The following problems relate to identifying and evaluating inductive and deductive arguments. Select the best answer for each.
18. If the Big Bang theory is correct, then the universe is billions of years old. And if the Big Bang theory is correct, then the universe was not created in six days. Thus, if the universe is billions of years old, then it was not created in six days.
a. Deductive, valid.
b. Inductive, strong. c. Inductive, cogent. d. Inductive, weak.
e. Deductive, invalid.
ANS: E PTS: 2
19. The engraved plate beneath this painting in the art museum says "Monet." Therefore, the painting must be the work of Monet.
a. Inductive, cogent.
b. Inductive, weak.
c. Deductive, valid. d. Inductive, strong. e. Deductive, invalid.
ANS: D PTS: 2
20. Canada is similar in many ways to the United States. Both countries share the same language, values, and a free market economy. Also, they share a common border. Therefore, the Canadian flag must look a lot like the U.S. flag.
a. Inductive, weak.
b. Deductive, invalid. c. Inductive, strong. d. Deductive, sound. e. Deductive, valid.
ANS: A PTS: 2
21. Either Bill Clinton or George W. Bush was president when the World Trade Center towers were destroyed. But Bush was not president at that time. Therefore, Bill Clinton was president when those buildings were destroyed.
a. Inductive, invalid.
b. Deductive, valid. c. Deductive, invalid. d. Inductive, strong.
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e. Inductive, weak.
ANS: B PTS: 2
22. As the universe expands, it gets colder and colder. Furthermore, this expansion will continue for ever and ever. Therefore, at some point in the future the universe will become too cold to support human life, and all humans will perish.
a. Deductive, invalid.
b. Deductive, valid. c. Deductive, sound. d. Inductive, strong. e. Inductive, weak.
ANS: D PTS: 2
23. No drug cartels are legal operations, so no legal operations are enterprises that engage in smuggling, because all drug cartels are enterprises that engage in smuggling.
a. Deductive, valid.
b. Inductive, strong.
c. Inductive, weak.
d. Deductive, sound. e. Deductive, invalid.
ANS: E PTS: 2
24. Giventhatx2 +2x=15.Itfollowsthatx=3. a. Inductive, strong.
b. Inductive, weak.
c. Deductive, valid.
d. Inductive, cogent. e. Deductive, invalid.
ANS: C PTS: 2
25. Graffiti painted on that vacant building says "Boycott Meat." Therefore, it's clear that we should all become vegetarians.
a. Deductive, sound. b. Inductive, weak.
c. Deductive, invalid. d. Deductive, valid. e. Inductive, strong.
ANS: B PTS: 2
26. James Bloomfield, the widely respected expert on art authentication, says that the painting recently discovered in the basement of the art museum is a genuine Picasso. Therefore, we conclude that the painting is indeed a genuine Picasso.
a. Deductive, invalid.
b. Inductive, weak. c. Deductive, valid. d. Inductive, cogent. e. Inductive, strong.
ANS: E
PTS: 2
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27. Astrological calculations indicate that the U.S. stock market will crash in the year 2014. Therefore, you should get your money out of the market before that year.
a. Inductive, cogent.
b. Deductive, valid.
c. Inductive, weak.
d. Deductive, invalid. e. Inductive, strong.
ANS: C PTS: 2
28. If organic food contains pesticides, then consumers are misled. Organic food does not contain pesticides. Therefore, consumers are not misled.
a. Inductive, weak.
b. Inductive, strong.
c. Deductive, valid. d. Deductive, invalid. e. Deductive, sound.
ANS: D PTS: 2
29. When Jack took his car in for service, the mechanic charged him for lots of work that didn't need to be done. The same thing happened to Niki and Claire. Apparently mechanics these days are just a bunch of crooks.
a. Inductive, strong.
b. Inductive, weak.
c. Deductive, invalid. d. Deductive, valid. e. Deductive, sound.
ANS: B PTS: 2
30. All aerobic exercises are calorie burners and all calorie burners are weight reducers. Thus, all aerobic exercises are weight reducers.
a. Deductive, valid.
b. Deductive, invalid.
c. Inductive, weak. d. Inductive, strong. e. Inductive, cogent.
ANS: A PTS: 2
31. After hearing Jordan's speech in the student council, Michael rolled his eyes and shook his head. Apparently Michael didn't agree with what Jordan said.
a. Deductive, valid.
b. Deductive, sound.
c. Deductive, invalid. d. Inductive, weak.
e. Inductive, strong.
ANS: E PTS: 2
32. Brandon is a polytheist. Therefore, he believes in more than one god. a. Inductive, cogent.
b. Deductive, invalid.
c. Inductive, weak.
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d. Deductive, valid. e. Inductive, strong.
ANS: D PTS: 2
33. Given that figure A is a triangle, and one of its sides has a length of 1 foot. It follows that its area is less than 1 square foot.
a. Inductive, weak.
b. Deductive, valid.
c. Deductive, invalid. d. Deductive, sound. e. Inductive, strong.
ANS: C PTS: 2
34. After buying a pair of Blue Atlas jeans, Carter was disappointed to find that they fell apart after only one month. The same think happened to Jeff, Mario, and Ralph. Apparently Blue Atlas jeans don't hold up very well.
a. Inductive, strong.
b. Inductive, cogent. c. Deductive, invalid. d. Inductive, weak.
e. Deductive, valid.
ANS: A PTS: 2
INSTRUCTIONS: Select the correct answer for each multiple choice question.
35. Which of the following are all premise indicators? a. For, because, consequently.
b. Inasmuch as, thus, Accordingly.
c. Consequently, hence, thus.
d. Since, given that, because.
e. Given that, for the reason that, wherefore.
ANS: D PTS: 2
36. Which of the following are all arguments?
a. Illustrations, syllogisms, explanations.
b. Predictions, categorical syllogisms, arguments from signs. c. Warnings, conditional statements, statements of belief.
d. Expository passages, reports, pieces of advice.
e. Propositions, analogies, inferences.
ANS: B PTS: 2
37. Which of the following are all deductive arguments?
a. Hypothetical syllogisms, disjunctive syllogisms, arguments based on mathematics. b. Generalizations, predictions, causal inferences.
c. Arguments from authority, disjunctive syllogisms, predictions.
d. Arguments from authority, generalizations, Arguments from analogy.
e. Arguments based on signs, causal inferences, arguments in science.
ANS: A PTS: 2
38. An argument whose conclusion rests on some geometrical procedure is:
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a. A strong argument.
b. An inductive argument. c. A deductive argument. d. A valid argument.
e. A sound argument.
ANS: C PTS: 2
39. An argument whose conclusion rests on a similarity between two things or situations is: a. A valid argument.
b. An inductive argument.
c. A sound argument.
d. A cogent argument.
e. A deductive argument.
ANS: B PTS: 2
40. In the expression "The moon sends forth light because it reflects light from the sun," the statement "The moon sends forth light" is called the:
a. Explanandum.
b. Consequent.
c. Explanans. d. Conclusion. e. Premise.
ANS: A
PTS: 2
41. In the expression "If a nation engages in torture, then it loses moral authority in the world community," the statement "A nation engages in torture" is called the:
a. Conclusion.
b. Consequent.
c. Conditional. d. Explanandum. e. Antecedent.
ANS: E
PTS: 2
42. Which of the following is a sufficient condition for committing a crime? a. Having a good lawyer.
b. Going to jail.
c. Avoiding the police.
d. Robbing a bank.
e. Signing a confession.
ANS: D PTS: 2
43. Which of the following is a necessary condition for playing baseball? a. Being able to run the bases faster than the other players.
b. Being able to catch a fly ball.
c. Having a bat.
d. Being able to steal a base. e. Having an umpire.
ANS: C PTS: 2
44. If a deductive argument has one true premise and a true conclusion, then we know:
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a. Nothing as such about the argument's validity. b. The argument is invalid.
c. The argument is valid.
d. The argument is weak.
e. The argument is uncogent. ANS: A PTS: 2
PROBLEM
INSTRUCTIONS: The following problems relate to the counterexample method.
1. PART A
Some cashmere sweaters are fashionable garments, so some cashmere sweaters are not suede jackets, for some suede jackets are not fashionable garments.
Which of the following correctly expresses the form of this argument?
a. SomeCareF. Some C are not S. Some S are not F.
d. SomeFarenotS. Some F are C.
Some S are not C.
PART B
b. SomeSarenotF. c. SomeSarenotF. SomeCareF. SomeCarenotS. SomeCarenotS. SomeCareF.
e. SomeCareF. Some F are not S. Some C are not S.
     Which of the following substitutions proves the argument invalid? a. C = animals, F = cats, S = mammals.
b. C = dogs, F = animals, S = mammals.
c. C = dogs, F = mammals, S = fish.
d. C= mammals, F = animals, S = dogs. e. C = cats, F = mammals, S = animals.
ANS:
Part A: b Part B: e
PTS: 4
2. PART A
If cell phone companies screen text messages, then freedom of speech is threatened. Thus, freedom of speech is not threatened, because cell phone companies do not screen text messages.
Which of the following correctly expresses the form of this argument?
a. If C then F. C.
F.
d. If C then F. Not C.
Not F.
PART B
b. NotF. Not C.
If C then F.
e. If C then F. Not F.
Not C.
c. AllCareF. C.
F.
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Which of the following substitutions proves the argument invalid?
a. C = Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, F = George Washington was assassinated. b. C= Joe Smith was beheaded, F= Joe Smith is dead.
c. C= Abraham Lincoln was beheaded, F = Abraham Lincoln is dead.
d. C= Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, F = Abraham Lincoln is dead.
e. C= Abraham Lincoln was beheaded, F = Abraham Lincoln is not dead.
ANS: Part A: Part B:
PTS: 4
3. PART A
All container ships that are ocean going are air polluters. Hence, all container ships are air polluters.
Which of the following correctly expresses the form of this argument?
a. AllCareA. All C are O.
d. AllCareO. All C are A.
PART B
b. AllCareA.
All C that are O are A.
e. AllCthatareOareA. All C are A.
c. AllCSareO. All CS are A.
d c
     Which of the following substitutions proves the argument invalid? a. C = husbands, O = married, A = men.
b. C = men, O = humans, A = mammals.
c. C = men, O = married, A = husbands.
d. C = wives, O = divorced, A = women. e. C=cats,O=animals,A=dogs.
ANS:
Part A: e Part B: c
PTS: 4
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Chapter 1 Test B MULTIPLE CHOICE
INSTRUCTIONS: The following selections relate to distinguishing arguments from nonarguments and identifying conclusions. Select the best answer for each.
1. Authoritarian states are characterized by strong central governments that fairly stringently limit the range of political activity. More often than not, they are one-party states, which means that only one party, that which supports the government, is allowed to engage in political activity. Free discussion and association are strictly curtailed in these systems. Anyone who might dare to criticize the government or to express ideas that are not in conformity with its policies can be severely punished, even by death.
Robert A. Heineman, Political Science
a. Argument; conclusion: More often than not ... engage in political activity.
b. Nonargument.
c. Argument; conclusion: Authoritarian states ... limit the range of political activity.
d. Argument; conclusion: Anyone who might dare to criticize ... even by death.
e. Argument; conclusion: Free discussion and association ... in these systems.
ANS: B PTS: 2
2. Prior to their extinction, Neanderthals had been widespread in Europe for 100,000 years. Then 50,000 years ago, modern humans moved into Europe from Africa. Twenty-six thousand years after that the last Neanderthal died. At one time it was thought that the Neanderthals were killed by climate change, but this theory has now been discounted. So why did the Neanderthals perish? Probably they were killed by the humans.
a. Argument; conclusion: Then 50,000 years ago ... Europe from Africa.
b. Argument; conclusion: At one time it was thought ... now been discounted.
c. Argument; conclusion: Prior to their extinction ... 100,000 years.
d. Nonargument. Twenty-six thousand years after that the last Neanderthal died. e. Argument; conclusion: Probably they were killed by the humans.
ANS: E PTS: 2
3. Hair turns color when we age because the follicles at the base of the hair shaft cease to produce melanin. Melanin is a chemical that gives the hair shaft its color (black, brown, blond, red, and all shades in between). The darkness or lightness of your hair depends on how much melanin each strand contains. With age, the cells in the follicle that produce melanin die off. As they do so, that hair strand will become silver, grey, or white, as it grows.
a. Argument; conclusion: The follicles ... cease to produce melanin. b. Argument; conclusion: Hair turns color when we age.
c. Argument; conclusion: With age, the cells in the follicle ... die off. d. Nonargument.
e. Argument; conclusion: The darkness or lightness ... each strand contains. ANS: D PTS: 2
4. Evolution as a process that has always gone on in the history of the earth can be doubted only by those who are ignorant of the evidence or are resistant to evidence, owing to emotional blocks or to plain bigotry. By contrast, the mechanisms that bring evolution about certainly need study and clarification. There are no alternatives to evolution as history that can withstand critical examination. Yet we are constantly learning new and important facts about evolutionary mechanisms.
 12

Theodosius Dobzhansky, "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution"
a. Nonargument.
b. Argument; conclusion: By contrast, the mechanisms ... study and clarification.
c. Argument; conclusion: Yet we are constantly ... evolutionary mechanisms.
d. Argument; conclusion: Evolution as a process ... blocks or to plain bigotry.
e. Argument; conclusion: There are no alternatives ... critical examination.
ANS: A PTS: 2
5. Scientists have recently shown that heaps of intact DNA from the extinct wooly mammoth are retrievable from the animals' fur. A great deal of that fur is readily available in natural history museums. Such amounts of DNA make it possible to piece together the entire mammoth genome. Hence, we can expect to see mammoth clones in the not too distant future.
a. Argument; conclusion: A great deal of that fur ... natural history museums.
b. Nonargument.
c. Argument; conclusion: Scientists have recently shown ... animals' fur.
d. Argument; conclusion: We can expect to see ... in the not too distant future.
e. Argument; conclusion: Such amounts of DNA ... the entire mammoth genome.
ANS: D PTS: 2
6. The loss of arctic ice is accelerating as a result of a form of positive feedback. As arctic ice melts, the arctic icecap reflects fewer rays from the sun. When this happens, more rays are absorbed by the surrounding ocean, which increases its temperature. As the temperature of the ocean rises, more arctic ice melts.
a. Argument; conclusion: When this happens ... which increases its temperature. b. Argument; conclusion: As the temperature of the ocean rises ... ice melts.
c. Argument; conclusion: The loss of arctic ice ... positive feedback.
d. Nonargument.
e. Argument; conclusion: As arctic ice melts ... fewer rays from the sun. ANS: C PTS: 2
7. If its ion engine operates as planned, its huge solar panel remains deployed and undamaged, and its xenon energy source is not exhausted, then the Dawn spacecraft will reach both Vesta and Ceres (large asteroids in the belt between Mars and Jupiter), and scientists will gather information about the formation of planets, whether Ceres has a buried ocean of fresh water, and whether vestiges of life lurk beneath its icy surface.
a. Argument; conclusion: Its ion engine operates ... not exhausted.
b. Argument; conclusion: The Dawn spacecraft ... Mars and Jupiter)
c. Argument; conclusion: The Dawn spacecraft ... beneath its icy surface.
d. Argument; conclusion: Scientists will gather information ... formation of planets. e. Nonargument.
ANS: E PTS: 2
8. To focus on the performance of the stock market is to zero in on an economic indicator that can do well even as the country does poorly. In 2006, for instance, the Dow Jones industrial average hit highs. According to the just released census data, however, median earnings fell one percent, and millions more Americans entered the ranks of the uninsured. Indeed, from 2000 to 2007 the S&P 500 gained more than 500 points. Meanwhile, the median household income fell by more than $900.
Ezra Klein, "Stock Split"
a. Argument; conclusion: According to the just released ... ranks of the uninsured.
b. Argument; conclusion: To focus on the performance ... the country does poorly.
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c. Argument; conclusion: In 2006, for instance, the Dow Jones ... hit highs. d. Argument; conclusion: Meanwhile ... fell by more than $900.
e. Nonargument.
ANS: B PTS: 2
9. The earth is divided into the crust, the mantle, and the core. The crust is the solid portion on which we stand. The mantle is a plastic but solid material under the crust that can flow and move about. And finally, the core is the innermost part of the earth made of solid and molten iron.
Pam Walker and Elaine Wood, Hands-On General Science Activities
a. Argument; conclusion: The mantle ... flow and move about.
b. Argument; conclusion: The crust is the solid portion on which we stand.
c. Nonargument.
d. Argument; conclusion: The core is the innermost part ... molten iron.
e. Argument; conclusion: The earth is divided into the crust, the mantle, and the core.
ANS: C PTS: 2
10. The relationship between two measurable factors can be represented by a graph. If both values increase, they are considered to have a direct relationship. For example, the more you work, the more money you make. If one value increases while the other decreases, they have an inverse relationship. For example, the more you work on your golf swing, the lower your score will be.
Scott Ryan, Earth Science
a. Nonargument.
b. Argument; conclusion: If one value increases ... an inverse relationship.
c. Argument; conclusion: The relationship ... can be represented by a graph.
d. Argument; conclusion: For example, the more you work ... money you make.
e. Argument; conclusion: If both values increase ... direct relationship.
ANS: A PTS: 2
11. Scientists may be on the verge of creating life in a test tube. Recently, scientists have used computers to synthesize a highly complex loop of DNA. When this loop was inserted into an empty bacterial cell, the cell began to self-replicate. And self-replication is an essential feature of life.
a. Argument; conclusion: When this loop was inserted ... began to self-replicate.
b. Argument; conclusion: Recently, scientists have used computers ... loop of DNA. c. Nonargument.
d. Argument; conclusion: Scientists may be on the verge ... life in a test tube.
e. Argument; conclusion: And self-replication is an essential feature of life.
ANS: D PTS: 2
12. Good intentions aside, there are compelling reasons to avoid water fluoridation. Hydrofluosilic acid, the industrial waste product used in municipal water systems, is contaminated with arsenic, lead, and other heavy metals. There are significant increases in lead levels in children who drink fluoridated water. A 2006 Harvard study found a fivefold to sevenfold increase in bone cancer in exposed young men. Sadly, the youngest children are the most susceptible.
David S. Banks, Letter to the Editor
a. Argument; conclusion: Hydrofluosilic acid ... and other heavy metals.
b. Argument; conclusion: Sadly, the youngest children are the most susceptible.
c. Argument; conclusion: There are compelling reasons to avoid water fluoridation.
d. Argument; conclusion: There are significant increases ... fluoridated water.
e. Nonargument.
ANS: C PTS: 2
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13. While there is no technology to reduce CO2 from a car's exhaust, we can make cars pollute less by making them more fuel efficient. By using today's best technology, car makers could dramatically increase the fuel economy of their cars and trucks. In fact, off-the-shelf technology can change the nation's best selling SUV, the Ford Explorer, from a 19 mpg gas guzzler to an efficient 34 mpg vehicle. If we are to make any progress in slowing global warming, we must make our cars go farther on a gallon of gas.
Sierra Club, "Global Warming Solutions"
a. Argument; conclusion: While there is no technology ... more fuel efficient.
b. Nonargument.
c. Argument; conclusion: In fact, off-the-shelf technology ... 34 mpg vehicle.
d. Argument; conclusion: By using today's best technology ... cars and trucks.
e. Argument; conclusion: If we are to make any progress ... a gallon of gas.
ANS: B PTS: 2
14. Developing an AIDS vaccine is not impossible, as some skeptics claim. Research suggests that the human immune system is better at fighting HIV than was originally thought. Most of those infected suppress the virus for years without developing AIDS. A small number never contract the virus despite repeated exposures. If we can figure out the mechanism that accounts for this, we'll have clues about how to engineer a vaccine.
Seth Berkley, "Don't Quit on an AIDS Vaccine"
a. Argument; conclusion: If we can figure out the mechanism ... engineer a vaccine.
b. Nonargument.
c. Argument; conclusion: Most of those infected ... without developing AIDS.
d. Argument; conclusion: Research suggests ... than was originally thought.
e. Argument; conclusion: Developing an AIDS vaccine ... skeptics claim.
ANS: E PTS: 2
15. Geology can be divided into two major time-related disciplines: physical geology and historical geology. Physical geology is the study of the materials the planet is composed of and the present day processes that operate on the surface and within the earth's deeper layers. Historical geology is the study of the earth's 4.6 billion year history, its formation, development, and evolution. Historical geologists strive to create a time-line of events that have occurred since the earth's formation.
Alan D. Sills, Earth Science the Easy Way
a. Nonargument.
b. Argument; conclusion: Historical geologists ... since the earth's formation.
c. Argument; conclusion: Physical geology ... the earth's deeper layers.
d. Argument; conclusion: Geology can be divided ... historical geology.
e. Argument; conclusion: Historical geology ... development, and evolution.
ANS: A PTS: 2
16. Nicotine is addictive because its chemical structure is so similar to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine that once inside the brain it unlocks several other chemicals. One of these chemicals is dopamine, which produces a highly pleasant sensation. Another is adrenaline, which increases alertness. Yet a third is serotonin, which improves one's mood. When people are deprived of these chemicals, they naturally want more, and this leads to addiction.
a. Argument; conclusion: When people are deprived ... leads to addiction.
b. Argument; conclusion: Nicotine is addictive.
c. Argument; conclusion: One of these chemicals is dopamine ... pleasant sensation. d. Nonargument.
e. Argument; conclusion: Its chemical structure ... unlocks several other chemicals.
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ANS: D PTS: 2
17. For awhile, during the 1990s, it looked as though the loggerhead sea turtle might be making a comeback. But a new federal report suggests that loggerheads have begun to decline again. Their life- pattern makes them doubly vulnerable to humans. They lay their eggs on beaches, habitat vulnerable to development and disturbance, and they spend their long lives at sea, where they are often fouled in fishing nets.
a. Argument; conclusion: But a new federal report ... begun to decline again.
b. Nonargument.
c. Argument; conclusion: Their life-pattern ... doubly vulnerable to humans.
d. Argument; conclusion: For awhile, during the 1990s ... making a comeback.
e. Argument; conclusion: They lay their eggs ... fouled in fishing nets.
ANS: C PTS: 2
Newspaper editorial
INSTRUCTIONS: The following problems relate to identifying and evaluating inductive and deductive arguments. Select the best answer for each.
18. After examining DNA evidence found at the crime scene, Dr. Jacobs, a highly qualified forensic biologist, says that Alex Foster could not have committed the crime. Therefore, we conclude that Foster is innocent.
a. Inductive, weak.
b. Deductive, sound. c. Deductive, invalid. d. Deductive, valid. e. Inductive, strong.
ANS: E PTS: 2
19. Some preachers are evangelists, so some preachers are TV personalities, since some evangelists are TV personalities.
a. Inductive, weak.
b. Deductive, invalid. c. Inductive, strong. d. Deductive, sound. e. Deductive, valid.
ANS: B PTS: 2
20. The poster on your neighbor's lawn says "Vote Horton for Sheriff." Therefore, it's clear that Horton would make a great sheriff.
a. Inductive, sound.
b. Inductive, strong.
c. Deductive, valid. d. Inductive, weak.
e. Deductive, invalid.
ANS: D PTS: 2
21. After drinking a bottle of Black Diamond Special Brew, Clyde noticed a slightly bitter aftertaste. Lauren and Nicole noticed the same thing when they drank some Black Diamond a year earlier. We conclude that every bottle of Black Diamond Special Brew has a slightly bitter after taste.
a. Inductive, weak.
b. Deductive, invalid.
16

c. Inductive, strong. d. Deductive, valid. e. Inductive, cogent.
ANS: C PTS: 2
22. Either Michelle Pfeiffer or Martha Stewart is a popular film star. But Michele Pfeiffer is not a film star at all. Therefore, Martha Stewart is a popular film star.
a. Deductive, valid.
b. Inductive, weak.
c. Deductive, cogent. d. Deductive, invalid. e. Inductive, strong.
ANS: A PTS: 2
23. Given that A and B are the diagonals of a parallelogram. It follows that A and B have the same length. a. Deductive, valid.
b. Inductive, strong.
c. Deductive, sound.
d. Inductive, weak.
e. Deductive, invalid.
ANS: E PTS: 2
24. Jim Searcy, a religious prophet who now lives in Cypress, claims that the Prince of Wales is the Antichrist. Therefore, we must conclude that the Prince of Wales is up to no good.
a. Inductive, weak.
b. Deductive, invalid.
c. Deductive, sound. d. Deductive, valid. e. Inductive, strong.
ANS: A PTS: 2
25. If football is a rough sport, then football injuries abound. It is the case that football injuries abound. Thus, it follows that football is a rough sport.
a. Inductive, strong.
b. Deductive, invalid.
c. Inductive, weak.
d. Deductive, valid.
e. Inductive, uncogent.
ANS: B PTS: 2
26. A divining rod is a magical device for detecting hidden water, metal, and gemstones. Your friend Roger is using his divining rod on the beach right now. Therefore, he'll likely find some diamonds buried beneath the sand.
a. Deductive, valid.
b. Inductive, strong.
c. Deductive, invalid. d. Inductive, weak.
e. Deductive, unsound.
ANS: D PTS: 2
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27. After smoking only a few cigarettes per day, Krista became addicted within two months. The same thing happened to Dave, Jean, and Marty. Therefore, since Dennis has been smoking a few cigarettes per day for the past two months, he's probably addicted, too.
a. Deductive, invalid.
b. Deductive, valid. c. Inductive, weak. d. Inductive, cogent. e. Inductive, strong.
ANS: E PTS: 2
28. Natalie is a kleptomaniac. Therefore, she has a compulsion to steal things. a. Deductive, valid.
b. Inductive, weak.
c. Inductive, cogent.
d. Inductive, strong. e. Deductive, invalid.
ANS: A PTS: 2
29. Lydia loves Ryan, and Ryan loves anchovy pizza. Therefore, it follows necessarily that Lydia loves anchovy pizza.
a. Deductive, sound. b. Deductive, valid. c. Deductive, invalid. d. Inductive, strong. e. Inductive, weak.
ANS: C PTS: 2
30. After investing in the stock market, Pamela doubled her money in just two years, and Beth and Tiffany did the same thing. However, Greg, Ivan, and Marty all lost money on the stock market during the same time frame. The obvious conclusion is that women do better than men in the stock market.
a. Inductive, strong.
b. Inductive, weak.
c. Deductive, invalid. d. Deductive, unsound. e. Deductive, valid.
ANS: B PTS: 2
31. Andrew is lighter than Carl, and Carl is heavier than Marty. Therefore, it follows necessarily that Andrew is lighter than Marty.
a. Inductive, strong.
b. Deductive, valid.
c. Inductive, weak.
d. Deductive, invalid. e. Deductive, sound.
ANS: D PTS: 2
32. The arctic ice cap has been shrinking for several years as a result of global warming, and that trend is expected to continue. Therefore, since arctic polar bears depend on that ice for survival, the arctic polar bear population will shrink in the years ahead.
a. Inductive, weak.

 

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Chapter 1 Test A MULTIPLE CHOICE INSTRUCTIONS: The following selections relate to distinguishing arguments from nonarguments and identifying conclusions. Select the best answer for each. 1. There appears to be a growing happiness gap between men and women. Women today are working more and relaxing less, while men are working less and relaxing more. Forty years ago a typical woman spent 40 minutes more per week than the typical man performing an activity considered unpleasant. Today, with men working less, the gap is 90 minutes and growing. a. Argument; conclusion: Today ... the gap is 90 minutes and growing. b. Nonargument. c. Argument; conclusion: Forty years ago ... an activity considered unpleasant. d. Argument; conclusion: There appears to be ... between men and women. e. Argument; conclusion: Women today are working more and relaxing less. ANS: D PTS: 2 2. Lead is toxic, but do you know why? Lead is toxic mainly because it preferentially replaces other metals in biochemical reactions. In so doing it interferes with the proteins that regulate blood pressure (which can cause development delays in children and high blood pressure in adults), heme production (which can lead to anemia), and sperm production. Lead also displaces calcium in the reactions that transmit electrical impulses in the brain, which diminishes the ability to think and recall information. Anne Marie Helmstine, "Your Guide to Chemistry" a. Argument; conclusion: It interferes with the proteins ... and sperm production. b. Argument; conclusion: Lead is toxic. c. Nonargument. d. Argument; conclusion: It preferentially replaces other metals in biochemical reactions. e. Argument; conclusion: Lead also displaces calcium ... recall information. ANS: C PTS: 2 3. Aristotle focused on clarifying the concept of virtue itself. He argued that it was virtuous to choose the proper amount of emotion and/or action called for in a particular situation and that extremes of emotion and action were vices. In all communities the...
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