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1. (TCO 1) Which best explains the differences between historians and political scientists? (Points : 2)
       Historians look for generalizations, and political scientists are reluctant to generalize.
       Historians are reluctant to generalize, and political scientists look for generalizations.
       Historians are more likely to look for comparisons than political scientists.
       Historians tend to focus on nature-based explanations, and political scientists focus on nurture-based explanations.

Question 2. 2. (TCO 1) The notion that politicians think practically and political scientists think abstractly is indicative of which of the following? (Points : 2)
       Political scientists often train politicians.
       Politicians often train political scientists.
       Political scientists and politicians are different in that the former studies the latter.
       Political scientists and politicians are often indistinguishable.

Question 3. 3. (TCO 1) When people base their views on beliefs that may not be based in reality, they are behaving _____. (Points : 2)

Question 4. 4. (TCO 1) A political leader’s ability to command respect and exercise power is known as _____. (Points : 2)

Question 5. 5. (TCO 1) Despite a disputed 2000 presidential election, once President George W. Bush took office, few people doubted his _____. (Points : 2)

Question 6. 6. (TCO 1) Relating concepts in a way that connects them in an empirical manner is the basis of _____ building. (Points : 2)

Question 7. 7. (TCO 1) A(n) _____ is an initial theory a researcher starts with to be proved with evidence. (Points : 2)

Question 8. 8. (TCO 4) Unlike natural law, positive law uses _____. (Points : 2)
       the spirit of the law to make determinations
       books to reach conclusions
       judicial sentencing to determine case outcomes
       jury selection to manipulate judgment

Question 9. 9. (TCO 4) Under which of the following circumstances might a case be pursued as both a criminal and a civil case? (Points : 2)
       The federal government accuses investment houses of wrongdoing and investors who lost money sue them.
       Drug traffickers violate property and federal law by moving drugs across state borders.
       Burglars violate federal property and the state sues them for damages.
       A state accuses banks of mortgage fraud in mortgages sold to investors elsewhere in the nation.

Question 10. 10. (TCO 4) Describe the significance of Marbury v. Madison. (Points : 2)
       The ruling laid precedent for judicial review.
       The ruling stated that the president is subject to the court’s decisions.
       The ruling decreed that current administrations must honor the appointments of previous administrations.
       The ruling claimed that federal taxes could not be levied on the states.

Question 11. 11. (TCO 4) What legal agency in the United States generates reputation-based ratings of prospective federal judges? (Points : 2)
       Judicial Ratings Bureau
       Federal Bureau of Judicial Review
       American Bar Association
       Office of Legal Assessment

Question 12. 12. (TCO 4) When was judicial review granted to the Supreme Court within the United States? (Points : 2)
       It was granted during the Constitution Convention of 1787.
       It was granted in the Bill of Rights.
       It was the result of the Marbury v. Madison decision of 1803.
       It was never officially adopted but is an unofficial practice.

Question 13. 13. (TCO 4) Which of the following best articulates the stance of judicial restraint advocates? (Points : 2)
       Judicial review is the best and only true method of checking legislative power.
       The court should practice restraint in cases in which legislative acts are presented for interpretation.
       Only the executive branch can restrain the court, keeping the power of judicial review in balance with the other governing branches.
       Only Congress should make public policy and, unless a legislative act clearly violates the Constitution, the law should stand.

Question 14. 14. (TCO 4) The Supreme Court’s decision in _____ (1954) triggered a revolution in American race relations, an area Congress had been unwilling to touch. (Points : 2)
       Miranda v. Arizona
       Dred Scott v. Sandford
       Brown v. Board of Education
       Gibbons v. Ogden

Question 15. 15. (TCO 5) Which systems demonstrate the clearest separation of power between the executive and legislative branches? (Points : 2)

Question 16. 16. (TCO 5) How often does the cabinet change in a parliamentary system? (Points : 2)
       Every 4 years
       Every 6 years
       Every 8 years
       When the cabinet is voted out or resigns

Question 17. 17. (TCO 5) Voters receive the most direct representation in which system? (Points : 2)


Question 18. 18. (TCO 5) The head of ministry is equivalent to the _____ in the United States. (Points : 2)
       chief of government
       head of state
       departmental secretary

1. (TCO 5) The only political system that could guarantee the cooperation between the legislative and executive branches is _____. (Points : 2)
       a monarchy
       a dictatorship
       a democracy
       an oligarchy

Question 2. 2. (TCO 5) In the case of both parliamentary and presidential systems, examine the reason democracies will not vanish, even though the executive seems to be receiving more and more power. (Points : 2)
       Checks and balances keep the chief executive from gaining too much power.
       Chief executives will eventually have to face reelection, which depends greatly on the approval of voting citizens.
       Both systems have methods by which to oust chief executives.
       Subordinates carry out some of the workload of the chief executive.

Question 3. 3. (TCO 5) Explain which type of candidate parliamentary systems seek out to become ministers. (Points : 2)
       Those who have experience winning elections and serving on a parliamentary committee
       Newcomers who can bring in a fresh perspective to the ministry
       Individuals who possess a great knowledge of the specific ministry’s area
       Those who have political experience regardless of whether or not they have been elected in the past

Question 4. 4. (TCO 7) Radicals use the term political economy instead of _____,”which is a hard sell these days. (Points : 2)
       late capitalism
       pure market system

Question 5. 5. (TCO 7) Early 20th-century European governments subscribed to _____ doctrines, generally keeping their hands away from the economy. (Points : 2)
       classic liberal

Question 6. 6. (TCO 7) Between 1965 and 1973, the percentage of Americans living below the poverty line _____. (Points : 2)
       greatly decreased
       slightly increased
       rapidly increased

Question 7. 7. (TCO 7) Which of the following is an increasing financial concern of the Medicare program? (Points : 2)
       The proportion of older people in American society is increasing steadily.
       Every American citizen on reaching 65 obtains Medicare, regardless of class.
       Economic inequality renders Medicare more necessary for some than for others.
       Wealthy Americans are taking advantage of the Medicare system.

Question 8. 8. (TCO 7) Why are many politicians wary about limiting Social Security and Medicare expenses? (Points : 2)
       Many would be left without enough to support them.
       Caps to these programs would undermine the welfare state.
       It can cost them votes.
       Both are primary social safety nets.

Question 9. 9. (TCO 7) How does the American welfare state compare to those of other industrialized nations? (Points : 2)
       Much less is allocated to welfare in the United States.
       Other nations allocate less to welfare than the United States.
       The United States allocates about the same to welfare.
       Few nations besides the United States maintain funds for welfare.

Question 10. 10. (TCO 7) Theoretically, what are the consequences if the government assumes the burden of bad loans? (Points : 2)
       Citizens will default on their mortgages.
       Banks will learn from their mistakes and pay back the burden with interest.
       Ultimately, the government will profit.
       Firms will be encouraged to continue their risky behavior.

Question 11. 11. (TCO 9) _____ is a small or moderate change that essentially leaves the system intact. (Points : 2)
       Mass discontent
       Dramatic system change
       A coup d’etat

Question 12. 12. (TCO 9) Describe what can often happen in a changing society when, during times of prosperity, some people get rich faster than others. (Points : 2)
       Jealousy is aroused.
       Politicians pay more attention to poverty.
       The very poor revolt.
       Economists become confused.

Question 13. 13. (TCO 9) What is likely to happen if the people are unhappy and there is no organization to focus their discontent? (Points : 2)
       They will almost surely turn to violence.
       Not much will happen.
       The people will organize themselves, regardless.
       They will eventually find other means of achieving contentedness.

Question 14. 14. (TCO 9) What about U.S. agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security, the FBI, and the CIA make them so ill prepared to fight terrorism? (Points : 2)
       They have extremely different missions when it comes to terrorism.
       They are poorly funded.
       They have a great deal of red tape to get through in order to be able to communicate.
       They are often unwilling to communicate with each other.

Question 15. 15. (TCO 9) According to Hannah Arendt, the American struggle was indeed a revolution, perhaps history’s only complete revolution, _____. (Points : 2)
       because it alone ended with democratic institutions.
       because it became an example for other nations.
       because it managed to route what was then the great world power.
       because it alone ended with a new foundation of liberty instead of the tyranny that came after other revolutions.

Question 16. 16. (TCO 9) Does terrorism work? (Points : 2)
       Rarely, and seldom without political and/or economic pressure
       Rarely, but primarily when brought against democratic nations
       Often, and without much need for political pressure to aid it
       Often, but only with the assistance of economic and/or political pressure

Question 17. 17. (TCO 9) Hannah Arendt pointed out that rage is the fuel of revolution, but what is now the greatest cause of rage? (Points : 2)
       The low level of education in developing nations
       The enormous economic mismanagement in industrialized nations
       The extreme violence utilized by industrialized nations against developing nations
       The massive corruption now found in developing lands

1.    (TCO 2) Evaluate Aristotle’s six types of government. In doing so, please be sure to list and define the categorizations. Please then assess how these classifications can be useful today to someone analyzing current governmental structures. (Points : 40)
Contingent on the quantity of individuals required in administering and the center of their interests, Aristotle recognized six sorts of social structure in three sets:
A state with one and only ruler is either a monarchy or a tyrrany;  
A state with a few rulers is either a  an aristocracy or an oligarchy; and
A state in which all tenet is either  a polity or a democracy
As indicated by Aristotle, the legitmate types of gov't (manage in light of a legitimate concern for all) are:
Government, Aristocracy, and Polity
The degenerate and corrupt types of gov't are:
Tyranny, Oligarchy, and Democracy
As indicated by Aristotle, Democracy is the most degenerate type of gov't of all since individuals in a Democracy are deceived into suspecting that one individual is on a par with another. That the massess in a vote based system take after the lead of degenerate and egotistical revolutionaries and loot the property of the persevering and the proficient.
The classiffication is important because even to date the cl;assification of government is still the same. England;s monrchy, united states democracy ie

Explain the relationship between electoral systems and party systems. Answers should be sure to assess this question from the perspective of both proportional representation and single-member districts and provide examples to support your points. (Points : 40)

1. relationship between electoral systems and party systems
Different kinds of electoral system are likely to encourage different kinds of party organization and party system. While it is important for party systems to be as representative as possible, most experts favour systems which encourage the development of parties based on broad political values and ideologies and specific policy programmes, rather than narrow ethnic, racial, or regional concerns. As well as reducing the threat of societal conflict, parties which are based on these broad ‘crosscutting cleavages’ are more likely to reflect national opinion than those that are based predominantly on sectarian or regional concerns.
Highly centralized political systems using closed-list PR are the most likely to encourage strong party organizations;conversely, decentralized, district-based systems like FPTP may have the opposite effect. But there are many otherelectoral variables that can be used to influence the development of party systems.
For example, new democracies like Russia and Indonesia have attempted to shape the development of their nascent party systems by providing institutional incentives for the formation of national rather than regional political parties.
Other countries such as Ecuador and Papua New Guinea have used party registration and funding requirements to achieve similar objectives. Access to public and/or private funding is a key issue that cuts across electoral system design, and is often the single biggest constraint on the emergence of viable new parties.
Just as electoral system choice will affect the way in which the political party system develops, the political party system in place affects electoral system choice. Existing parties are unlikely to support changes that are likely to seriously disadvantage them, or changes that open the possibility of new, rival parties gaining entry to the political party system, unless there is a strong political imperative. The range of options for electoral system change may thus be constrained in practice.
Different kinds of electoral system also result in different relationships between individual candidates and their supporters. In general, systems which make use of single-member electoral districts, such as most plurality/majority systems, are seen as encouraging individual candidates to see themselves as the delegates of particular geographical areas and beholden to the interests of their local electorate. By contrast, systems which use large multi-member districts, such as most PR systems, are more likely to deliver representatives whose primary loyalty lies with their party on national issues. Both approaches have their merits, which is one of the reasons for the rise in popularity of mixed systems that combine both local and national-level representatives.
The question of accountability is often raised in discussions of political parties and electoral systems, especially in relation to individual elected members. The relationships between electors, elected members, and political parties are affected not only by the electoral system but also by other provisions of the political legislative framework such as term limits, provisions regulating the relationship between parties and their members who are also elected representatives, or provisions barring elected members from changing parties without resigning from the legislature.
The freedom for voters to choose between candidates as opposed to parties is another aspect of accountability. Many countries in recent years have therefore introduced a greater element of candidate-centred voting into their electoral systems, for example, by introducing open lists in PR elections.

The United States has utilized multiple forms of liberalism throughout its history. Please distinguish the specific characteristics of classical and modern liberalism and outline the evolution of these forms of liberalism within the United States. Please be sure to include specific historic examples to support your points. (Points : 40)

2, Modern liberalism is not completely collectivist; nor is it completely individualistic. It has elements of both doctrines. The same is true of conservatism. Neither view provides a coherent approach to politics, built up from first principles. Instead, they both reflect a process that is akin to picking items from a dinner menu. What is chosen is a matter of taste rather than a matter of thought. Just as people with similar tastes in food tend to frequent the same restaurants, people with the same tastes in politics tend to vote for the same candidates.
Humanitarian wars are also commonly associated with modern liberalism; these wars are fought with words, unlike other wars. They are intended to help support the people who cannot support themselves and to stand up for the rights of people to use the state to their benefits. Modern liberals are also fond of the idea of mixed economies; they believe that there should be less definitive class separation and that there should be a strong mixture of people from different backgrounds combined together in an economical society.
Unlike traditional liberalism, there is a certain element of tyranny within the modern liberal movement. In the past, liberalism was used to literally liberate people from the rule of kings and tyrants. Modern liberalism is now imposing its beliefs onto people who are not interested in focusing their lives around how their state can help them; it is a forced movement that is functioning more like a tyranny than any other liberal beliefs have ever done.
classical liberalism features
•    all human beings have inherent dignity and worth

•    all individuals have inherent natural rights; including life, liberty, and property

•    governments and social arrangements are human constructs; their justification is the establishment of order, to promote justice, and to protect and enhance natural rights

•    While humans are equal in rights and dignity, our inequality in talents, interests, and other qualities is a valid and necessary aspect of the human condition.  Thus classical liberals oppose leftist attempts to force equalization of condition or result.

•    an emphasis on free market economics, limited/constitutional government, and the rule of law

Today’s world seems to be moving beyond sovereignty and toward supranational leadership to cooperate on issues of global importance. What are some of these issues? How might they be solved through supranational cooperation? Does such cooperation impede the sovereignty of independent nations? Please sure to include specific examples in supporting your points. (Points : 40)
The sovereign obligation emergency and the euro emergency have incited heads of state and government in Europe to heighten supranational collaboration. Be that as it may, some political pioneers and arrangement producers go for additional. They propose the presentation of a typical European monetary government that would keep Europe from encountering further financial dangers and settle national spending plans and financial markets, and the euro. The consequences of a review among well informed individuals infer a fairly undecided state of mind towards this endeavour. While a thin dominant part supports the general thought of incorporated monetary administration in Europe, or in the Eurozone, the solid thoughts for the configuration of such a legislature are not famous among the respondents. A unified macroeconomic approach, a typical spending plan that is set midway and utilizing Eurobonds as a typical method for obligation financing in the Eurozone all get restricted endorsement. In this way, on the off chance that they are going for more supranational collaboration, open and corporate approach producers need to make obvious strides that offer substantial benefits that influence general feelings favourably.

2nd response
.issues of global importance
1.  the economic crisis in the world
2. civil war and political instabilities
3. global climatic change
these issues that are a concern to every nation should be solve through internationally set agencies and corporations that govern the common good of every individual country e.g the United Nations, the Commonwealth, European Union.
these corporations do not impede on the sovereignty of independent nations because the laws that govern them are the sum total of the individual nations' contribution.

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1. (TCO 1) Which best explains the differences between historians and political scientists? (Points : 2) Historians look for generalizations, and political scientists are reluctant to generalize. Historians are reluctant to generalize, and political scientists look for generalizations. Historians are more likely to look for comparisons than political scientists. Historians tend to focus on nature-based explanations, and political scientists focus on nurture-based explanations. ...
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