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BIOL 301 Human Health and Disease FINAL EXAM | Complete Solution
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BIOL 301 Human Health and Disease    FINAL EXAM                 240 points 
DUE in your Assignment folder by Saturday, May 7th   11:59:59PM Eastern Time USA. 

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Submit your answers (as a .doc, .docx, or .rtf) by using the table on the last page (e.g., 1.A, 2.B, 3.C, etc.) and returning only the TABLE by way of your Assignment Folder. Following the TABLE should be your ESSAY Question answers.  
        50 Multiple Choice Questions at 4 points each.  
        10 Essay Questions. Choose 2 to answer at 20 points each.

50 Multiple Choice Questions at 4 points each.  

1.  Dr. Sue Mi is interested in diseases of the retina. The field of study best suited to her interests is
    A.  physiology        B.  anatomy        C.  pathology        D.  bowling

2.  There are numerous levels of organization in the body.  The correct order from simplest to most complex is
    A.  organ, tissue, cell, organism, system    B.  cell, tissue, organ, system, organism
    C.  system, cell, organ, organism, tissue    D.  cell, system, tissue, organ, organism

3.  The atomic number of sodium is 11. The sodium ion has a single positive charge (Na+). How many electrons does the sodium ion have?
    A.  10        B.  11
    C.  12        D.  More information is required to answer this question.

4.  The chemical category that includes fats and cholesterol is
    A.  proteins        B.  lipids     C.  carbohydrates    D.  solutions

5.  If a cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to
    A.  synthesize proteins    B.  synthesize RNA
    C.  divide            D.  secrete proteins

6.  A particular cell type specializes in breaking down harmful by-products of metabolism. This cell type would contain very high levels of
A.  lysosomes        B.  smooth endoplasmic reticulum    
C.  centrioles        D.  peroxisomes

7.  Connective tissues would probably NOT contain
    A.  fibroblasts        B.  collagen        C.  goblet cells        D.  matrix

8.  Ms. Busch has a lump in her arm. The doctor has determined that the lump has not spread and is derived from adipose tissue. This lump would best be described as a
    A.  benign lipoma        B.  malignant sarcoma
    C.  malignant lipoma        D.  benign sarcoma

9.  Mr. Luckless is experiencing headaches as a result of drug therapy. The headaches are an example of a(n)
    A.  iatrogenic disease        B.  idiopathic disease
    C.  pandemic disease        D.  etiological disorder

10.  An infectious agent composed entirely of protein is called a(n)
    A.  prion    B.  viroid     C.  virus    D.  rickettsiae

11.  Mr. Munybags has erythematous flat areas on his arms and legs that are covered with silvery scales. His father also has the same skin condition. The most likely diagnosis is
    A.  atopic dermatitis        B.  psoriasis           C.  impetigo        D.  shingles

12.  Which of the following diseases is caused by a fungus?
    A.  ringworm        B.  verruca        C.  eczema        D.  acne vulgaris

13.  A forensic scientist wants to identify the gender of a skeleton based on the pelvic structure. Which of the following characteristics would be found in a male pelvis?
    A.  a wide, rounded pelvic opening        B.  a long, curved sacrum
    C.  wide, flared ilia                D.  a wide pubic arch

14.  Ms. Jones, aged 31, has been diagnosed with tuberculosis. Lately, her joints have been inflamed. Ms. J probably has
    A.  osteoarthritis    B.  gout    C.  septic arthritis    D.  rheumatoid arthritis

15.  The compound that stores oxygen in muscle cells is
    A.  hemoglobin    B.  glycogen        C.  creatine phosphate        D.  myoglobin

16.  Exercise results in
    A.  constricted blood vessels        B.  a decrease in the number of mitochondria
    C.  muscle atrophy            D.  an increase in the resting heart rate

17.  The hypothalamus
    A.  initiates voluntary movements.    B.  controls and integrates autonomic nervous system activity.
    C.  is regulated by the pituitary gland.    D.  plays a minor role in the maintenance of homeostasis

18.  Ms. L has been experiencing muscle weakness. Her physician informs her that she has abnormal antibodies attacking the myelin sheath around neurons in her central nervous system. The most likely diagnosis is
    A.  poliomyelitis            B.  multiple sclerosis
    C.  amyotrophic lateral sclerosis    D.  peripheral neuropathy

19.  Difficulty in forming words would indicate an injury to the
    A.  Wernicke area            B.  Broca area
    C.  auditory association area        D.  primary sensory cortex

20.  The point of sharpest vision is called the
    A.  rods    B.  fovea centralis    C.  optic disk        D.  cornea

21.  Glaucoma is associated with excess eye fluid. The excess fluid exerts pressure on the nerve receiving visual input from the eye, known as the
    A.  oculomotor nerve        B.  trochlear nerve
    C.  optic nerve            D.  trigeminal nerve

22.  Dr. Spiegel has asked you if you want to write a 50-page essay. You shake your head "no." This motion will be sensed by the
    A.  vestibule        B.  maculae        C.  cristae    D.  cochlear duct

23.  What effect would a large increase in cortisol have on glucagon and insulin secretion?
    A.  Both insulin and glucagon would be increased.
    B.  Both insulin and glucagon would be decreased.
    C.  Insulin would be decreased, glucagon would be increased.
    D.  Insulin would be increased, glucagon would be decreased.

24.  Diabetes insipidus results from a lack of
    A.  glucagon        B.  aldosterone    C.  calcitonin        D.  antidiuretic hormone

25.  A person with type A blood has antibodies to
    A.  A antigen        B.  B antigen        C.  A and B antigens        D.  neither antigen

26.  A person with a hematocrit of 33% is suffering from
    A.  anemia        B.  leukopenia        C.  polycythemia    D.  leukocytosis

27.  The part of the heart capable of generating the largest force is the
    A.  right atrium    B.  left atrium        C.  right ventricle    D.  left ventricle

28.  The heart chamber that receives blood from the lungs is the
    A.  right atrium    B.  left atrium        C.  right ventricle    D.  left ventricle

29.  A blood cell is journeying from the left thumb to the heart. It would probably NOT pass through the
    A.  left brachiocephalic vein        B.  superior vena cava
    C.  left jugular vein            D.  left subclavian vein

30.  Which of the following drugs would NOT be used to treat hypertension?
    A.  a drug that relaxes blood vessels        B.  a drug that inhibits renin production
    C.  a diuretic                    D.  a drug that increases heart rate

31.  Which of the following is a function of the lymphatic system?
    A.  oxygen delivery to tissues    
    B.  absorption of digested fats
    C.  transport of absorbed amino acids from the intestine to the liver    
    D.  thermoregulation

32.  Inflammation of the lymph nodes is called
    A.  lymphedema    B.  lymphangitis    C.  lymphadenitis    D.  lymphectomy

33.  A substance that causes blood vessels to dilate is
    A.  interferon        B.  complement    C.  histamine        D.  antibody

34.  A process that results in antibody production by the recipient induces a form of immunity called
    A.  active immunity        B.  nonspecific immunity
    C.  passive immunity        D.  immunotherapy

35.  At the lungs,
    A.  both oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse from the blood into the alveoli
    B.  oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli
    C.  carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood and oxygen diffuses into the alveoli
    D.  both oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse from the alveoli into the blood

36.  Which of the following breathing patterns would result in the greatest increase in blood acidity?
    A.  apnea        B.  tachypnea        C.  hyperpnea        D.  dyspnea

37.  Which of the following is the correct order of tissue from the outermost to the innermost layer in the wall of the digestive tract?
    A.  submucosa, serous membrane, smooth muscle, mucous membrane
    B.  smooth muscle, serous membrane, mucous membrane, submucosa
    C.  serous membrane, smooth muscle, submucosa, mucosa
    D.  mucous membrane, submucosa, smooth muscle, serous membrane

38.  Your dog has just consumed a half stick of butter that you dropped. Most of the nutrients in the butter will be absorbed in the form of
    A.  amino acids    B.  sugars    C.  glycerol and free fatty acids    D.  nucleotides

39.  Which of the following is an example of a catabolic reaction?
    A.  Free fatty acids and glycerol are converted into triglycerides.
    B.  Starches and glycogen are converted into glucose.
    C.  Tryptophan and histidine are converted into a peptide.
    D.  Two glucose molecules are converted into maltose.

40.  Which situation describes the measurement of basal metabolism?
    A.  Ms. Jones measures her energy output while jogging.
    B.  Mr. Dogwood measures his energy requirements while he is sleeping.
    C.  Ms. Gees measures her energy output while eating popcorn.
    D.  All of the answers are correct.

41.  Antidiuretic hormone
    A.  regulates acid-base balance
    B.  is secreted when water intake is too low
    C.  stimulates the production of large amounts of urine
    D.  increases bone formation

42.  A decrease in the rate and depth of breathing could theoretically alleviate
    A.  metabolic alkalosis    B.  respiratory acidosis    C.  dehydration    D.  edema

43.  An active process that moves substances from the blood into the nephron is
    A.  tubular reabsorption    B.  tubular filtration        C.  tubular secretion    D.  osmosis

44.  Materials are driven out of the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule because of
    A.  osmotic pressure            B.  blood pressure
    C.  concentration gradients        D.  active transport

45.  Progesterone levels are highest during
    A.  the follicular phase    B.  the proliferative phase
    C.  ovulation            D.  the secretory phase

46.  Which of the following structures contributes the most liquid to the semen?
    A.  seminiferous tubules    B.  epididymis
    C.  vas deferens        D.  seminal vesicles

47.  The average length of gestation in humans is
    A.  3 months        B.  38 weeks        C.  42 weeks        D.  1 year

48.  The fertilized egg normally attaches to the
    A.  myometrium    B.  oviduct        C.  fimbriae        D.  endometrium

49.  If a person is a carrier for a particular disease, 
    A.  the disease must be dominant, and the person's genotype must be heterozygous
    B.  the disease must be recessive, and the person's genotype must be heterozygous
    C.  the disease must be dominant, and the person's genotype must be homozygous recessive    D.  the disease must be recessive, and the person's genotype must be homozygous dominant

50.  The ability of a particular gene to determine phenotype can be altered by
    A.  environmental factors    B.  gender
    C.  other genes            D.  All of the answers are correct.


BIOL 301  Final Exam  answers 
1        11        21        31        41    
2        12        22        32        42    
3        13        23        33        43    
4        14        24        34        44    
5        15        25        35        45    
6        16        26        36        46    
7        17        27        37        47    
8        18        28        38        48    
9        19        29        39        49    
10        20        30        40        50    

10 Essay Questions.     Choose  2  to answer at 20 points each.

1.    Describe the role of the following in protein synthesis - DNA, nucleotides, RNA, ribosomes, rough ER, and Golgi apparatus.

2.    List three factors that have contributed to the increase in infectious disease, and name a disease that has been particularly affected by each factor.

3.    Compare and contrast osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and osteomyelitis.

4.    Huntington’s disease is characterized by a loss of normal inhibition mediated by the basal nuclei.  Predict the symptoms you are likely to see with this disease

5.    Describe and discuss several common types of heart disease.

6.    Name and discuss the diseases involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

7.    Individuals experiencing prolonged vomiting lose a great deal of stomach juices with the vomitus.  Predict the effect this loss will have on the pH of blood.  How will the respiratory system respond to the change in pH.

8.    List and discuss six signs of chronic renal failure.

9.    Beginning with the first day of menstruation, describe the events of one complete cycle, including the role of the hormones involved.

10.    Differentiate among congenital, genetic, and hereditary disorders and give several examples of each.

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BIOL 301 Human Health and Disease FINAL EXAM | Complete Solution
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Fatigue. Patients with chronic failure of renal function usually complain of getting fatigued even by light activities such as climbing three or four stairs. This is...
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