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Liberty University HIUS 221 Module Week 7 Mindtap Activities complete solutions correct answers key

 

10.6 The U.S. War with Mexico

Prior to entering a war against Mexico over regional independence and a disputed border, the United States Texas.

 

In spite of insistence by Mexico that its border with Texas lay at the River, Americans fought to set it farther south.

 

Which statements about the Mexican-American War and its aftermath are true? Check all that apply.

The war ended at the 1848 Battle of the Alamo, as U.S. troops surrounded the Mexican fort and forced a surrender.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo resulted in the United States annexing Texas and Mexico controlling the American stronghold of Cuba.

The Mexican response to American forces was hampered by Mexico’s lack of military resources.

Desertion was common during the war in part because of harsh discipline and poor compensation for soldiers.

Under orders from President Polk, General led forces south into disputed territory to establish the Texas border at the Rio Grande River.

 

Which statements about the Mexican-American War and its aftermath are true? Check all that apply.

Wilmot’s proviso effectively made Attorney General John C. Calhoun the arbiter of racial policy in newly acquired Mexican territory.

As a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, nearly 600 million acres of Mexican territory was acquired by the United States.

President Polk called for war with Mexico, claiming that an attack on U.S. soldiers in disputed territory occurred on American soil.

Desertion was common during the war primarily because American soldiers feared the superior weaponry of the Mexican army.

Texans claimed independence from Mexico starting in 1836, when Mexican general was defeated.

 

During the 1830s and 1840s, Texans regularly fought against with the help of federal forces.

 

In 1846, American settlers began the Rebellion, attacking a Mexican garrison. The rebellion left Mexican forces disorganized and vulnerable to subsequent attacks.

 

Which statements about the Mexican-American War and its aftermath are true? Check all that apply.

In 1848, U.S. and Mexican officials signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, an agreement by which the United States bought California, New Mexico, and all of Texas north of the Rio Grande River.

Wilmot’s proviso legalized slavery in newly acquired Mexican territory to help the development of the region.

General John C. Calhoun led the least successful American campaign of the war. All of his men were massacred at the Alamo.

In response to the American incursion, Mexican president José Joaquín de Herrera mobilized Mexican troops to defend the country’s territory.

 

11.1 Picturing History

The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 led to a greater number of territories available to decide for themselves whether to become in the United States. This decision to allow or prohibit slavery was determined by in accord with the concept of popular sovereignty. The map of 1854 demonstrates that partisans from the were most successful in recruiting settlers to the Kansas territory.

 

The decision handed down from theDred Scott case of 1856 declared that the was unconstitutional. Thus, free soilers and abolitionists feared that despite, the slave trade would flourish in western territories. Southerners feared that prohibiting slavery in the western territories would slavery in other states.

The Compromise of 1850 admitted to the Union as a free state. To appease Southerners concerned about a free-state majority in the Senate, the bill allowed settlers in territories won from to determine for themselves if they would seek admission to the Union as free or slave states. Other concessions included stronger fugitive slave laws in the North, the inability of Congress to regulate the slave trade in states where it was legal, and to abolish the slave trade but keep slavery legal in.

 

11.2 Compromise of 1850

They believed him to be an effective antislavery advocate but were disappointed when he opposed the Compromise of 1850.

He surprised them by advocating for California’s admission to the Union as a free state.

They despised him from the start for his opposition to slavery.

 

Which of the following provisions did the Compromise of 1850 include?

It made catching fugitive slaves more difficult.

It admitted California to the Union as a slave state.

It continued to permit slavery in the District of Columbia.

 

Identify each of the following statements as either true or false.

Statement

True

False

As part of the Compromise of 1850, minstrel shows were outlawed.

 

 

Zachary Taylor impressed southern politicians by refusing to allow the slave trade in the District of Columbia to decline.

 

 

During the mid-nineteenth century, white actors wore blackface and performed for white audiences in shows that both were racist and demonstrated a fascination with African American culture.

 

 

Harriet Beecher Stowe challenged the institution of slavery and the Fugitive Slave Act in her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin.

 

 

 

They opposed slavery but were willing to permit it in federal territory, such as the District of Columbia.

They supported slavery and were concerned that California’s admission to the Union as a free state would upset the balance.

They supported slavery and were able to spread the institution to newly acquired Illinois.

 

Statement

True

False

In her novel The Tennessean's Story, Harriet Beecher Stowe fought against the impression that slave owners were cruel tyrants.

 

 

Minstrel shows displayed the ambivalent racial views of white Americans who attended to enjoy and to ridicule representations of African Americans.

 

 

Southern advocacy for slavery stood in stark contrast to the views of northerners, who believed in full equality between the races.

 

 

In response to Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Southerners published their own novels advancing the idea that slaveholders treated their slaves well.

 

 

 

Which of the following statements best represents the position of southern Whigs during the mid-nineteenth century?

They opposed slavery but were willing to permit it in federal territory, such as the District of Columbia.

They supported slavery and were able to spread the institution to newly acquired Illinois.

They supported slavery and were concerned that California’s admission to the Union as a free state would upset the balance.

 

Which of the following provisions did the Compromise of 1850 include?

It outlawed slave trading in the District of Columbia.

It banned slavery in territories acquired in the war with Mexico.

It admitted Oregon to the Union as a free state.

 

Identify each of the following statements about the Fugitive Slave Act as either true or false.

Statement

True

False

It created unrest among abolitionists, who could be called on to help apprehend those accused of being escaped slaves.

 

 

It prompted the emergence of large factions in free states that lobbied to expand slavery into northeastern states.

 

 

Its biggest problem was that the commissioners enforcing the law were not paid for their work.

 

 

It was problematic in part because it offered commissioners financial incentives to decide cases in favor of slaveholders.

 

 

 

Identify each statement about the excerpt of Invention of the Telegraph as either true or false.

Statement

True

False

Morse’s description of the state of telegraphic technology in the mid-nineteenth century may be considered valuable by scholars interested in the history of technology.

 

 

Historians may use this document to piece together a chronology of the development of the telegraph in America.

 

 

This document functions as an excellent source when examining the congressional records of Senators Huntington and Wright.

 

 

 

11.3 Then & Now: Economic Lens

Which factors does Morse cite as crucial to the successful completion and demonstration of the telegraph? Check all that apply.

The enthusiasm of Annie Ellsworth in March of 1843

The passage of the Telegraph Bill in 1843

The advice of Senators Huntington and Wright in March of 1843

The interest of Alfred Vail in the summer of 1837

 

According to Morse, what actions did Annie Ellsworth take leading up to the first successful demonstration of the telegraph?

She insisted that Senators Huntington and Wright hold a vote for the passage of the Telegraph Bill before adjourning their session and later became the Commissioner of Patents.

She was the first to tell him the news of the passage of the Telegraph Bill and later dictated the first message sent across the Washington-Baltimore telegraph line.

She convinced her father, the Commissioner of Patents, to pass the Telegraph Bill and later delivered the $30,000 to Morse.

 

Identify each statement about the excerpt of Invention of the Telegraph as either true or false.

Statement

True

False

This document could be valuable to historians interested in establishing a chronology of events surrounding the development of the telegraph.

 

 

This document functions as an excellent source when examining the career of the Honorable H. L. Ellsworth, then Commissioner of Patents.

 

 

This document provides firsthand insight into the passage of the Telegraph Bill.

 

 

 

Description

Morse

Ford

Both

Conversations between others and the author are described in this document, which reveals a human dimension to the man.

 

 

 

The author of this source recognizes beneficial relationships that ensured the success of the enterprise.

 

 

 

This piece examines the process of creating a particular innovation across a span of years.

 

 

 

This document sufficiently addresses several advances made toward developing a given innovation, but it also expands on this by considering the relationship between the innovation and the American economy.

 

 

 

 

Which factors did Morse claim prevented him from exhibiting his telegraphic apparatus prior to the autumn of 1837? Check all that apply.

He lacked the funds to finish it to his standards.

He dreaded the thought of being ridiculed after working on it for so long.

He lacked confidence in electromagnetic power.

He worried that his lavish lifestyle would cause him not to be taken seriously.

 

Whose economic support does Morse credit as integral to the first successful demonstration of the telegraph?

The federal government

Alfred Vail

Annie Ellsworth

Identity each statement about the Ford excerpt as either true or false.

Statement

True

False

The author provides no useful data, anecdotal or otherwise, for a reader to determine the efficiency of the assembly line.

 

 

Ford’s description of the implementation of the assembly line includes insight into his motivations as a businessman.

 

 

Historians interested in the acceleration of mass production during the twentieth century would likely analyze this source.

 

 

 

According to Ford, which of the following sources served as inspiration for his interest in and improvements to the assembly line?

The building of a house, in such a fashion that all necessary parts for its construction are brought to the site where the house will stand

The overhead trolley system employed by Chicago meatpackers to dress beef

The assembly of a motor by one man completed in eighty-four steps

 

According to Ford, which of the following characteristics contribute to his company’s policy to "reduce the price, extend the operations, and improve the article"? Check all that apply.

Strive to provide car buyers with a product that will last forever

Consistently raise prices of cars with no consideration of production costs

Cut production costs by paying workers a higher hourly wage

Encourage customers to purchase a new model every year

Description

Morse

Ford

Both

This piece includes references to other historical actors who helped to realize the success of the author’s innovation.

 

 

 

The author of this document provides details regarding early experiments with the innovation.

 

 

 

In addition to addressing the practical concerns leading to the development of a given innovation, this source explores the innovation’s relationship with the American economy.

 

 

 

Published in the mid-nineteenth century, this document describes some of the personal travails of its author.

 

 

 

 

11.3 Then & Now: Political Lens

Statement

True

False

This platform likely contains fairly different stances and opinions on political matters than those found in the 1860 Democratic Party platform.

 

 

This source outlines specific political criticisms.

 

 

The document invites the support of non-party members.

 

 

 

Which of these statements captures a major theme of the 1860 Republican Party platform?

Allowing some states to secede from the union would be a terrible idea.

The issue of Kansas’s statehood is complex, and a decision on it should not be rushed.

Laws ensuring a minimum wage for workers should be repealed.

 

With which of the following statements would the party platform’s authors likely agree? Check all that apply.

The Democratic president has not served the interests of the whole country.

The Constitution should be amended to overturn the provisions guaranteeing a right to own slaves.

Kansas should not be admitted as a state until all parties agree to make it a slave state.

Immigrants that have become citizens should never have that status revoked.

 

Identify each statement about the Republican Party Platform of 1860 as either true or false.

Statement

True

False

The audience for this document probably included potential voters.

 

 

One function of this platform served to help voters distinguish between political parties.

 

 

This source avoids criticizing Democratic Party members.

 

 

 

Statement

True

False

The authors of this document obviously assumed that the audience shared their political views.

 

 

The intended audience of this document probably included members of the African American community.

 

 

This source is intended to inspire social and political change.

 

 

 

Select the correct response from each dropdown menu to complete the sentence.

One critical component addressed by the authors of the Platform and Program of the Black Panther Party is the idea that is the source of just government power, which mirrors the same concept advanced in the Declaration of Independence.

 

With which of the following statements would the authors of this document likely agree? Check all that apply.

Any solution to the problems of racial inequality that involves a separate African American colony is unacceptable.

The convictions of many African American defendants are invalid because juries have not been composed of African Americans.

If African American men are expected to serve in the military, the community should have a larger role in decisions about war.

All African Americans should arm themselves for their own protection.

 

Identify each statement about the Black Panther Party platform as either true or false.

Statement

True

False

The author of this document assumed that injustices experienced by the African American community did not extend to the judicial system.

 

 

The source represents opinions shared by multiple members of a group.

 

 

The document takes a largely positive tone about the state of American race relations.

 

 

 

Select the correct response from each dropdown menu to complete the sentence.

One critical component addressed by the authors of the Platform and Program of the Black Panther Party is the idea that, which mirrors the same concept advanced in the Declaration of Independence.

 

With which of the following statements would the authors of this document likely agree? Check all that apply.

African Americans are owed compensation for the slavery of their ancestors.

Injustices should be accepted in order to preserve peace and advance the cause of racial equality.

Only African Americans should sit on juries when African American defendants are tried.

African Americans should receive exactly the same education as white people, especially with regard to history.

 

Identify each statement as pertaining to the platform of the Republican Party of 1860 or the platform of the Black Panther Party.

Statement

Republican

Black Panther

This source addresses a narrower range of policy areas.

 

 

This source expresses support for easing transportation to the West Coast.

 

 

It discusses the party’s opposition to expanding slavery to new territories.

 

 

It strongly voices the group’s opposition to racially motivated police brutality.

 

 

 

Which of the following statements expresses a shared characteristic among the two sources?

Both sources express concern that history was being taught in a biased way.

Both sources disregard social issues, focusing mostly on taxes.

Both sources suggest that slavery is morally wrong.

 

Identify each statement as pertaining to the platform of the Republican Party of 1860 or the platform of the Black Panther Party.

Statement

Republican

Black Panther

This source discusses the importance of states’ rights.

 

 

This source expresses support for the release of many African American prisoners.

 

 

It accuses police of racially motivated murder.

 

 

It strongly voices the group’s opposition to the reopening of the African slave trade.

 

 

 

Which of the following statements expresses a shared characteristic among the two sources?

Statement

Republican

Black Panther

This source addresses a wider array of policy areas.

 

 

It strongly voices the group’s opposition to injustices in the legal system.

 

 

This source expresses support for the African American community to control its own destiny.

 

 

It discusses the importance of preserving the Union.

 

 

 

Identify each statement about the Republican Party Platform of 1860 as either true or false.

Statement

True

False

The document includes summaries of the political conditions at the time it was written.

 

 

This source appears to be critical in the selection process of the party’s presidential nominee.

 

 

This document captures opinions shared by many members of a group.

 

 

 

Which of these statements captures a major theme of the 1860 Republican Party platform?

If the slave states refuse to abandon the practice of slavery, the federal government should send in troops to end it forcibly.

The right to hold slaves is not guaranteed by the Constitution.

Proposals for secession deserve careful consideration, but they should ultimately be denied.

 

With which of the following statements would the party platform’s authors likely agree? Check all that apply.

Immigrants that have become citizens should never have that status revoked.

The Constitution should be amended to overturn the provisions guaranteeing a right to own slaves.

The Democratic president has not served the interests of the whole country.

Kansas should not be admitted as a state until all parties agree to make it a slave state.

 

Which of these statements captures a major theme of the 1860 Republican Party platform?

Freedom and equality are fundamental rights that should be protected in existing territory and any that might be acquired.

The principles of the Declaration of Independence are important, but they don’t necessarily apply to African Americans.

The Democratic president has brought corruption under control, but his economic policies have been ineffective.

 

With which of the following statements would the party platform’s authors likely agree? Check all that apply.

The federal government needs to be held accountable for its actions.

Both Republicans and Democrats have threatened to secede, but that issue should be put to rest, by force if necessary.

Efforts to reestablish the African slave trade are a source of national shame.

States’ rights should be disregarded for the purpose of ending slavery.

 

Statement

True

False

This text contains numerous grievances from which historians might gain a better sense of the African American experience during the mid-1960s.

 

 

The document is concerned with the relationship between the white and African American communities.

 

 

The audience for this document is explicitly defined.

 

 

 

Select the correct response from each dropdown menu to complete the sentence.

One critical component addressed by the authors of the Platform and Program of the Black Panther Party is the idea that, which mirrors the same concept advanced in the Declaration of Independence.

 

With which of the following statements would the authors of this document likely agree? Check all that apply.

Any solution to the problems of racial inequality that involves a separate African American colony is unacceptable.

The convictions of many African American defendants are invalid because juries have not been composed of African Americans.

If African American men are expected to serve in the military, the community should have a larger role in decisions about war.

All African Americans should arm themselves for their own protection.

Which of the following statements expresses a shared characteristic among the two sources?

Both sources disregard economic issues in favor of foreign policy.

Both sources strongly indicate that the government owes restitution to African Americans for slavery.

Both sources deal with controversial issues related to rac

Statement

Republican

Black Panther

It strongly voices the group’s opposition to racially motivated police brutality.

 

 

This source expresses support for easing transportation to the West Coast.

 

 

This source addresses a narrower range of policy areas.

 

 

It discusses the party’s opposition to expanding slavery to new territories.

 

 

 

Which of the following statements expresses a shared characteristic among the two sources?

Both sources reference the idea that "all men are created equal."

Both sources express the need for government to provide people with numerous tax incentives.

Both sources call for government to get out of people’s lives.

 

11.4 The Crisis in Kansas

Select the correct response from the dropdown menu that follows each note card.

What name was given to adamant supporters of the South and the institution of slavery in the mid-nineteenth century?

 

What abolitionist led a group of free-state supporters, hoping to protect those in Kansas who shared his views, before leading the Pottawatomie Massacre?

 

What name was given to Missouri residents who traveled to Kansas to cast votes in favor of slavery?

 

What name was given to the siege in which slavery advocates in Kansas destroyed printing presses, fired cannons, and burned down a local hotel?

 

How did Scott ultimately manage to secure his freedom despite being denied by the Supreme Court?

Through the pure chance of his owner marrying an abolitionist.

By outliving his owner and becoming emancipated upon her death.

By appealing to his owner’s conscience and convincing her to set him free.

 

Which of the following statements best describes the significance of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision regarding Dred Scott?

The Supreme Court’s decision not only impacted the status of Dred Scott and all persons of African American descent, but also further divided the North and the South over the issue of slavery.

The Supreme Court’s decision only applied to Dred Scott and did not impact other persons of African American descent, free or slave.

The Supreme Court’s decision represented the moral highpoint for the court regarding its position on slavery.

 

What major change in cotton production occurred during the 1850s?

 

Whose empty seat in Congress became a symbol for northern residents of southern viciousness?

 

What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) use as a basis for deciding the legality of slavery in these regions?


Which group did critics of slavery appeal to, arguing that the peculiar institution ran counter to its interests?

 

How did South Carolina congressman Preston Brooks react to Senator Charles Sumner’s series of antislavery speeches?

 

What was at the crux of the argument debated before the Supreme Court?

Whether or not slavery was constitutional

Whether or not states could re-enslave African Americans who had previously received their freedom

Whether or not U.S. citizenship extended to African Americans

 

Which of the following statements does not reflect the Supreme Court’s decision in the Dred Scott case of 1857?

The Supreme Court ruled that African Americans be granted citizenship in the United States.

The Supreme Court ruled that the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional.

The Supreme Court ruled that African Americans could not sue in the courts of the United States.

 

Why was Dred Scott’s case considered groundbreaking?

He helped many of his fellow slaves sue in the US courts for their freedom.

He helped establish the status of African Americans, free or enslaved, as U.S. citizens.

He was the first slave to attempt to use U.S. law to his advantage and sue for his freedom.

 

What happened to Dred Scott after the U.S. Supreme Court denied his right to sue in the courts in 1857?

Physically and emotionally worn out from the attempts to gain his freedom, Dred Scott died after the Supreme Court issued its decision.

Dred Scott fled the country to Canada in order to gain his freedom.

Sympathetic to his plight, Dred Scott’s original owners granted him his freedom shortly before he died.

 

11.5 Political Polarization

paragraph.

The election of 1860 looked more like two separate elections than a nationwide one. Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln did not even appear on southern ballots, whereas the South’s candidate,, made no efforts to explain himself to the North. Meanwhile, candidate Stephen A. Douglas warned against voting along sectional lines, and the Unionist Party hoped to soothe tensions over slavery by pledging “the Union as it is, the Constitution unchanged.” Even so, the nation divided along sectional lines on election day. Lincoln carried every northern state except, which he split with Douglas. Breckinridge carried the entire South except for the border states of Tennessee, Virginia, and, which went to the Constitutional Unionist Party. Although second place in the popular vote, Douglas carried only one state,. In the end, Lincoln won only of the popular vote. He carried the North, however, which had more electoral votes than the less populous South, winning electoral votes—59.4% of the total—thus securing the presidency but only by affirming the South’s suspicion that the North cared little for its interests.

 

Which of the following statements best describes the position of the Know-Nothings?

It was a militant group of proslavery advocates from free states.

It was an antislavery group that broke off from the Democratic Party.

It was a nativist group with members suspicious of immigrants and Catholics.

 

Which of the following descriptions of the election of 1856 is accurate?

Democrat Millard Fillmore won reelection with a large majority of the popular vote.

Democrat James Buchanan won the presidency without a majority of the popular vote.

Republican John C. Fremont won the presidency with a small majority of the popular vote.

 

Which of the following statements are true? Check all that apply.

Led by the influential Jefferson Davis, Mississippi became the first state to secede from the Union.

The conflict at Fort Sumter was accelerated by northern efforts to resupply troops there, although the South attacked before the provisions arrived.

The conflict between North and South escalated when Union forces attacked southern troops stationed in the Ohio garrison of Fort Sumter.

Lincoln’s initial response to secession was to adopt a conciliatory tone, hoping to preserve the Union and avoid war.

 

Which of the following statements best describes the Free-Soil Party?

It was made up of former Republicans who supported Franklin Pierce.

It was composed of former Democrats who opposed slavery.

It primarily contained former Know-Nothings who opposed the annexation of Texas.

 

Which of the following descriptions of the outcome of the election of 1860 is accurate?

Southerners were outraged by the election of a northern Republican who didn’t even appear on southern ballots.

Moderates were enraged by the election of a candidate from an extremist third party.

Northerners were upset by the election of a strongly proslavery Democrat who wanted to spread the institution across the whole nation.

 

Which of the following statements are true? Check all that apply.

Citizens from both the North and the South pursued efforts to placate the South soon after the 1860 election, and some even suggested a constitutional amendment guaranteeing the right to own slaves.

Led by charismatic former general Robert Anderson, Alabama became the first state to secede from the Union.

Lincoln’s initial response to secession was to ignore the issue publicly, hoping to privately negotiate a mutually agreeable two-country solution.

The conflict between North and South escalated when southern forces attacked Fort Sumter before Union forces could send provisions.

 

Zachary Taylor, the candidate, won the election with of the popular vote. Although Taylor majority of the popular vote, he fared better with the electoral college, receiving electoral votes. Taylor appealed to voters in the North and South who, but he won only half the states: eight slave states, including, and seven free states, such as. Although he did not win any electoral votes, Martin Van Buren came in second in several key states, proving that his party’s opposition to the expansion of slavery was sapping support from the two major parties by drawing abolitionists, free-soil Democrats, and so-called Conscience Whigs into a third party.

 

Which of the following people would have been most likely to join the Know-Nothings?

A Protestant woman born in Germany and living in Virginia

A Protestant man born in Rhode Island to English parents

A Catholic man born in Ireland and living in New York

 

Which of the following descriptions of the election of 1856 is accurate?

Democrat Millard Fillmore won reelection with a large majority of the popular vote.

Republican John C. Fremont won the presidency with a small majority of the popular vote.

Democrat James Buchanan won the presidency without a majority of the popular vote.

 

Which of the following statements are true? Check all that apply.

After residents were angered by the result of a presidential election, South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union.

The conflict between North and South escalated when Union forces stormed the strategic southern stronghold of Fort Sumter.

Lincoln’s initial response to secession was to take a strong unionist tone, warning secessionists that their actions would lead to all-out war.

Lincoln responded to the attacks on Fort Sumter by raising a force of 75,000 volunteer soldiers.


The Party chose James Buchanan as its presidential candidate in 1856 because he could not be associated with the party’s divisive stance on. The Republicans, too, chose a candidate—John C. Fremont, with no strong positions and even less political experience than Buchanan. With 83% of eligible voters turning out, Buchanan won the election withof the popular vote. Although he carried every southern state except, Buchanan’s margin of victory in a number of states was thin, with the difference between winning and losing only a few thousand votes. The Republicans’ strong showing in the, evidenced by its victory in states such as Michigan, Massachusetts, and, filled the party with confidence because it had gone from a new party to a contender for the presidency in a few years’ time.

 

Which of the following statements best describes the position of the Know-Nothings?

It was a nativist group with members suspicious of immigrants and Catholics.

It was a militant group of proslavery advocates from free states.

It was an antislavery group that broke off from the Democratic Party.

 

Which of the following descriptions of the outcome of the election of 1860 is accurate?

Southerners were outraged by the election of a northern Republican who didn’t even appear on southern ballots.

Moderates were enraged by the election of a candidate from an extremist third party.

Northerners were upset by the election of a strongly proslavery Democrat who wanted to spread the institution across the whole nation.

 

Which of the following statements are true? Check all that apply.

The conflict at Fort Sumter was accelerated by northern efforts to resupply troops there, although the South attacked before the provisions arrived.

Lincoln’s initial response to secession was to adopt a conciliatory tone, hoping to preserve the Union and avoid war.

Led by the influential Jefferson Davis, Mississippi became the first state to secede from the Union.

The conflict between North and South escalated when Union forces attacked southern troops stationed in the Ohio garrison of Fort Sumter.

 

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Liberty University HIUS 221 Module Week 7 Mindtap Activities complete solutions correct answers key 10.6 The U.S. War with Mexico Prior to entering a war against Mexico over regional independence and a disputed border, the United States Texas. In spite of insistence by Mexico that its border with Texas lay at the River, Americans fought to set it farther south. Which statements about the Mexican-American War and its aftermath are true? Check all that apply. The war ended at the 1848 Battle of the Alamo, as U.S. troops surrounded the Mexican fort and forced a surrender. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo resulted in the United States annexing Texas and Mexico controlling the American stronghold of Cuba. The Mexican response to American forces was hampered by Mexico’s lack of military resources. Desertion was common during the war in part because of harsh discipline and poor compensation for soldiers. Under orders from President Polk, General led forces south into disputed territory to establish the Texas border at the Rio Grande River. Which statements about the Mexican-American War and its aftermath are true? Check all that apply. Wilmot’s proviso effectively made Attorney General John C. Calhoun the arbiter of racial policy in newly acquired Mexican territory. As a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, nearly 600 million acres of Mexican territory was acquired by the United States. President Polk called for war with Mexico, claiming that an attack on U.S. soldiers in disputed territory occurred on American soil. Desertion was common during the war primarily because American soldiers feared the superior weaponry of the Mexican army. Texans claimed independence from Mexico starting in 1836, when Mexican general was defeated. During the 1830s and 1840s, Texans regularly fought against with the help of federal forces. In 1846, American settlers began the Rebellion, attacking a Mexican garrison. The rebellion left Mexican forces disorganized and vulnerable to subsequent attacks. Which statements about the Mexican-American War and its aftermath are true? Check all that apply. In 1848, U.S. and Mexican officials signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, an agreement by which the United States bought California, New Mexico, and all of Texas north of the Rio Grande River. Wilmot’s proviso legalized slavery in newly acquired Mexican territory to help the development of the region. General John C. Calhoun led the least successful American campaign of the war. All of his men were massacred at the Alamo. In response to the American incursion, Mexican president José Joaquín de Herrera mobilized Mexican troops to defend the country’s territory. 11.1 Picturing History The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 led to a greater number of territories available to decide for themselves whether to become in the United States. This decision to allow or prohibit slavery was determined by in accord with the concept of popular sovereignty. The map of 1854 demonstrates that partisans from the were most successful in recruiting settlers to the Kansas territory. The decision handed down from theDred Scott case of 1856 declared that the was unconstitutional. Thus, free soilers and abolitionists feared that despite, the slave trade would flourish in western territories. Southerners feared that prohibiting slavery in the western territories would slavery in other states. The Compromise of 1850 admitted to the Union as a free state. To appease Southerners concerned about a free-state majority in the Senate, the bill allowed settlers in territories won from to determine for themselves if they would seek admission to the Union as free or slave states. Other concessions included stronger fugitive slave laws in the North, the inability of Congress to regulate the slave trade in states where it was legal, and to abolish the slave trade but keep slavery legal in. 11.2 Compromise of 1850 They believed him to be an effective antislavery advocate but were disappointed when he opposed the Compromise of 1850. He surprised them by advocating for California’s admission to the Union as a free state. They despised him from the start for his opposition to slavery. Which of the following provisions did the Compromise of 1850 include? It made catching fugitive slaves more difficult. It admitted California to the Union as a slave state. It continued to permit slavery in the District of Columbia. Identify each of the following statements as either true or false. Statement True False As part of the Compromise of 1850, minstrel shows were outlawed. Zachary Taylor impressed southern politicians by refusing to allow the slave trade in the District of Columbia to decline. During the mid-nineteenth century, white actors wore blackface and performed for white audiences in shows that both were racist and demonstrated a fascination with African American culture. Harriet Beecher Stowe challenged the institution of slavery and the Fugitive Slave Act in her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin. They opposed slavery but were willing to permit it in federal territory, such as the District of Columbia. They supported slavery and were concerned that California’s admission to the Union as a free state would upset the balance. They supported slavery and were able to spread the institution to newly acquired Illinois. Statement True False In her novel The Tennessean's Story, Harriet Beecher Stowe fought against the impression that slave owners were cruel tyrants. Minstrel shows displayed the ambivalent racial views of white Americans who attended to enjoy and to ridicule representations of African Americans. Southern advocacy for slavery stood in stark contrast to the views of northerners, who believed in full equality between the races. In response to Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Southerners published their own novels advancing the idea that slaveholders treated their slaves well. Which of the following statements best represents the position of southern Whigs during the mid-nineteenth century? They opposed slavery but were willing to permit it in federal territory, such as the District of Columbia. They supported slavery and were able to spread the institution to newly acquired Illinois. They supported slavery and were concerned that California’s admission to the Union as a free state would upset the balance. Which of the following provisions did the Compromise of 1850 include? It outlawed slave trading in the District of Columbia. It banned slavery in territories acquired in the war with Mexico. It admitted Oregon to the Union as a free state. Identify each of the following statements about the Fugitive Slave Act as either true or false. Statement True False It created unrest among abolitionists, who could be called on to help apprehend those accused of being escaped slaves. It prompted the emergence of large factions in free states that lobbied to expand slavery into northeastern states. Its biggest problem was that the commissioners enforcing the law were not paid for their work. It was problematic in part because it offered commissioners financial incentives to decide cases in favor of slaveholders. Identify each statement about the excerpt of Invention of the Telegraph as either true or false. Statement True False Morse’s description of the state of telegraphic technology in the mid-nineteenth century may be considered valuable by scholars interested in the history of technology. Historians may use this document to piece together a chronology of the development of the telegraph in America. This document functions as an excellent source when examining the congressional records of Senators Huntington and Wright. 11.3 Then & Now: Economic Lens Which factors does Morse cite as crucial to the successful completion and demonstration of the telegraph? Check all that apply. The enthusiasm of Annie Ellsworth in March of 1843 The passage of the Telegraph Bill in 1843 The advice of Senators Huntington and Wright in March of 1843 The interest of Alfred Vail in the summer of 1837 According to Morse, what actions did Annie Ellsworth take leading up to the first successful d...

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