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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 12 complete solutions correct answers A+ work
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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 12 complete solutions correct answers A+ work

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Chapter 12

Question 1 Which subfield of psychology is concerned with how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by interactions with others?

Question 2 Attitudes may be described as comprising which components?

Question 3 The tendency for people to reduce their efforts when working as part of a group is called

Question 4 The “cover story” in the famous obedience research presented in the text was that the researcher was investigating

Question 5 Research on attraction suggests that you will be most attracted to someone who is

Question 6 Discrimination represents which attitudinal component of prejudice?

Question 7 Dr. Vanchella suspects that one of her college students does not have any money for food. She arranges for money to be put on the student’s meal card without telling the student. Which term best describes Vanchella’s motive?

Question 8 In groupthink, group members emphasize ______ over thoughtful consideration of the issues.

Question 9 A salesperson used a persuasive technique that was not based on the principle of compliance. Which technique was used?

Question 10 All but which of the following is identified in the text as a factor influencing conformity?

Question 11 Which of the following individuals is making the fundamental attribution error?

Question 12 Recent research on the actor­observer effect suggests that

Question 13 In the elaboration likelihood model, peripheral is to ______ as central is to ______.

Question 14 People with a high need for consistency are more likely to be susceptible to which compliance technique?

Question 15 Compared to people from collectivist cultures, people from individualistic cultures are

Question 16 Angela believes that people from Stovenia are basically dishonest. Angela is demonstrating

Question 17 The self­defense explanation of a crime essentially involves convincing the jury to make what sort of attribution about the defendant’s actions?

Question 18 Jamal is asked to describe himself. Which of Jamal’s statements represents his social identity?

Question 19 JoAnne goes to the local electronics store to purchase a $30 DVD player that was advertised in the paper. Upon arriving, the salesperson tells her that they have just run out and offers to show JoAnne some other models. JoAnne ends up purchasing a $150 DVD player. JoAnne has been the victim of which technique of persuasion?

Question 20 A social psychological explanation of the poor decisions of President Kennedy’s administration in the Bay of Pigs incident is best described by which principle?

 

Question 1 Making friends with neighbors supports which influence on attraction?

Question 2 In attribution theory, dispositional attributions are ______ and situational attributions are _____.

Question 3 Jamal is asked to describe himself. Which of Jamal’s statements represents his social identity?

Question 4 In groupthink, group members emphasize ______ over thoughtful consideration of the issues.

Question 5 Recent research on the actor­observer effect suggests that

Question 6 Jahrul’s instructor was very rude the first day of class. Jahrul assumed the instructor was a rude woman. He did not know that she had woken up late, had a car accident on the way to work, and had been locked out of her office. Jahrul is demonstrating

Question 7 The fundamental attribution error, which helps explain how cognitive biases affect attributions, involves

Question 8 Regarding Milgram’s research on obedience, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9 Compared to people of higher intelligence, people of lower intelligence are generally

Question 10 Of the following smokers, which one is choosing the route of rationalization to deal with the dissonance between their smoking behavior and their belief that smoking is unhealthy?

Question 11 Janice leads a team of 20 employees. If Janice wants to reduce the chances of social loafing in her team, she should do all but which of the following?

Question 12 Regarding research on physical attractiveness, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 13 Willem is a skilled pianist. He has recently started playing the violin. When an audience is present, Willem probably

Question 14 Miguel is asked to describe himself. Which of Miguel’s statements represents his personal identity?

Question 15 From the perspective of the field of psychology, love is

Question 16 Which of the following is the best definition of social facilitation?

Question 17 Which recipient variables have an influence on persuasion?

Question 18 According to _______, people are more likely to carefully evaluate a persuasive message when their motivational state is high and when they have the ability or knowledge to evaluate the information.

Question 19 ______ is the process by which we come to form an understanding of our social environment.

Question 20 When Anne first met Jules, he had been suffering from insomnia and was a little shorttempered. Subsequently, when she was around Jules, she interpreted a lot of what he did as reflecting his hostile personality. This reflects the power of

 

Question 1 Recent research on the actor­observer effect suggests that

Question 2 ______ is the process by which we come to form an understanding of our social environment.

Question 3 Which of the following individuals is making the fundamental attribution error?

Question 4 In the elaboration likelihood model, peripheral is to ______ as central is to ______.

Question 5 Which of the following is the best definition of obedience?

Question 6 In persuasion, presenting both sides of an argument is

Question 7 First impressions tend to become lasting impressions in part because of the role of

Question 8 Regarding research evidence on aggression, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9 The argument that “everyone’s doing it” may help explain why people obey immoral commands. This argument may be explained by the principle of

Question 10 Jamal is asked to describe himself. Which of Jamal’s statements represents his social identity?

Question 11 Which researcher(s) is/are associated with the study of bystander intervention?

Question 12 All of the following make attitudes more likely to influence behavior EXCEPT

Question 13 Of the following people with attitudes toward hybrid vehicles, which one best describes the behavioral component of attitudes?

Question 14 Regarding research evidence on aggression, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 15 Willem is a skilled pianist. He has recently started playing the violin. When an audience is present, Willem probably

Question 16 The tendency for people to reduce their efforts when working as part of a group is called

Question 17 In attribution theory, dispositional attributions are ______ and situational attributions are _____.

Question 18 Making friends with neighbors supports which influence on attraction?

Question 19 Discrimination represents which attitudinal component of prejudice?

Question 20 Which of the following statements regarding prejudice is FALSE?

 

Question 1 According to _______, people are more likely to carefully evaluate a persuasive message when their motivational state is high and when they have the ability or knowledge to evaluate the information.

Question 2 A researcher compares cross-­cultural differences in the fundamental attribution error by showing a film of someone stealing and then asking participants to explain why the person stole. Participants from East Asian cultures are most likely to make which attribution?

Question 3 The failure of witnesses to help Kitty Genovese when she was viciously attacked may have been due to the tendency to believe that others would act and so they wouldn’t need to. This explanation is based on the principle of _________.

Question 4 ______ play(s) a role in explaining why people obey immoral commands.

Question 5 Jahrul’s instructor was very rude the first day of class. Jahrul assumed the instructor was a rude woman. He did not know that she had woken up late, had a car accident on the way to work, and had been locked out of her office. Jahrul is demonstrating

Question 6 JoAnne goes to the local electronics store to purchase a $30 DVD player that was advertised in the paper. Upon arriving, the salesperson tells her that they have just run out and offers to show JoAnne some other models. JoAnne ends up purchasing a $150 DVD player. JoAnne has been the victim of which technique of persuasion?

Question 7 Personal identity is to ______ as social identity is to ______.

Question 8 According to the text, one of the most common ways to reduce cognitive dissonance is to

Question 9 When people explain their own behavior by making a situational attribution and the behavior of others by making a dispositional attribution it is called

Question 10 Contemporary theorists are least likely to choose which factor to explain human aggression?

Question 11 Regarding attributions, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 12 Discrimination represents which attitudinal component of prejudice?

Question 13 A salesperson used a persuasive technique that was not based on the principle of compliance. Which technique was used?

Question 14 People with a high need for consistency are more likely to be susceptible to which compliance technique?

Question 15 A person’s individual identity is best described as her/his

Question 16 A group of psychologists discuss the causes of aggression. Which psychologist speaks from a sociocultural perspective?

Question 17 The contact hypothesis suggests that prejudice

Question 18 Regarding attitudes, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 19 Regarding research evidence on aggression, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 20 Which researcher conducted an influential study on conformity?

 

Question 1 Results of attitude research with twins has revealed

Question 2 Other factors being equal, which person is likely to identify more strongly with their personal identity than their social identity?

Question 3 The triangular model of love is described by each of the following components the triangular theory of love EXCEPT

Question 4 Features of a communicator attempting to deliver a persuasive message are called

Question 5 When people explain their own behavior by making a situational attribution and the behavior of others by making a dispositional attribution it is called

Selected Answer: b. the actor­observer effect. Question 6 In order for intergroup contact to have a desirable effect on prejudice and intergroup tension, all but which of the following conditions are necessary?

Question 7 Regarding Milgram’s research on obedience, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 8 Angela believes that people from Stovenia are basically dishonest. Angela is demonstrating

Question 9 The contact hypothesis suggests that prejudice

Question 10 The relationship between attitudes and behavior is best described as

Question 11 What is the primary reason that people’s behaviors do not always match their attitudes?

Question 12 Which personality type has been found to be associated with the development of prejudice?

Question 13 Compared to people of higher intelligence, people of lower intelligence are generally

Question 14 Heika and Lucille were both passed over for a promotion at work. Heika is sure that the boss does not like him, but he believes that Lucille was passed over because she is really a poor worker. His attribution of the cause of the event can be explained in terms of

Question 15 Studies describing gender differences in conformity suggest that women are ______ men to conform

Question 16 People use a central route of processing information when

Question 17 First impressions tend to become lasting impressions in part because of the role of

Question 18 Regarding attitudes, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 19 Compared to a person from a collectivist culture, a person from an individualistic culture

Question 20 The self­defense explanation of a crime essentially involves convincing the jury to make what sort of attribution about the defendant’s actions?

 

Question 1 Edwin happens upon a crime in progress but does nothing to assist the victims or even summon the police. Later, he says he was afraid for his personal safety. This type of explanation, which may help explain the inaction of witnesses in the case of Kitty Genovese, is best described by the principle of _________.

Question 2 Dr. Longstocking is a research psychologist who studies attitudes, cognitive dissonance, and first impressions. Which type of psychologist is Dr. Longstocking?

Question 3 Carlotta has recently befriended Phyllis, who has been driving Carlotta’s children to day care. The new friendship is most likely based on

Question 4 Regarding research evidence on aggression, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 5 Miguel is asked to describe himself. Which of Miguel’s statements represents his personal identity?

Question 6 The tendency for people to reduce their efforts when working as part of a group is called

Question 7 The triangular model of love is described by each of the following components the triangular theory of love EXCEPT

Question 8 Which of the following definitions best describes out­group negativism?

Question 9 Frida is a CEO who must make an important decision regarding the future of her company. When Frida meets with her Board of Directors to discuss this decision, she should do all but which of the following?

Question 10 The tendency to adjust one’s behavior to actual or perceived social pressures is called

Question 11 Making friends with neighbors supports which influence on attraction?

Question 12 The contact hypothesis suggests that prejudice

Question 13 JoAnne goes to the local electronics store to purchase a $30 DVD player that was advertised in the paper. Upon arriving, the salesperson tells her that they have just run out and offers to show JoAnne some other models. JoAnne ends up purchasing a $150 DVD player. JoAnne has been the victim of which technique of persuasion?

Question 14 Jamal is in a situation where another person needs help. According to the bystander intervention model, Jamal’s first step will be

Question 15 Cognitive dissonance results when

Question 16 Regarding stereotypes, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 17 Which of the following statements regarding prejudice is FALSE?

Question 18 Asch is to ______ as Milgram is to ______.

Question 19 Willem is a skilled pianist. He has recently started playing the violin. When an audience is present, Willem probably

Question 20 Jamal is asked to describe himself. Which of Jamal’s statements represents his social identity?

 

Question 1 Which of the following is the best definition of social facilitation?

Question 2 Regarding influences on helping, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 3 The triangular model of love is described by each of the following components the triangular theory of love EXCEPT

Question 4 Paul and Joanna have a love relationship characterized by high levels of intimacy, passion, and commitment. Using the triangular model, their love would be described as

Question 5 Compared to people from collectivist cultures, people from individualistic cultures are

Question 6 In attitudes, _______ are to cognitions as _______ are to emotions.

Question 7 Making friends with neighbors supports which influence on attraction?

Question 8 Carlotta has recently befriended Phyllis, who has been driving Carlotta’s children to day care. The new friendship is most likely based on

Question 9 A popular diet company hires a physician to advertise their weight­loss program. Which source variable is the company trying to influence?

Question 10 All but which of the following are factors that influence the process of impression formation?

Question 11 Cognitive dissonance results when

Question 12 Which recipient variables have an influence on persuasion?

Question 13 Jamal is in a situation where another person needs help. According to the bystander intervention model, Jamal’s first step will be

Question 14 Which personality type has been found to be associated with the development of prejudice?

Question 15 From the perspective of the field of psychology, love is

Question 16 Christine does not like country music. This reflects which component of her attitude toward country music?

Question 17 People with a high need for consistency are more likely to be susceptible to which compliance technique?

Question 18 Willem is a skilled pianist. He has recently started playing the violin. When an audience is present, Willem probably

Question 19 Janice leads a team of 20 employees. If Janice wants to reduce the chances of social loafing in her team, she should do all but which of the following?

Question 20 Sven believes that his co­worker was promoted to manager because of her hard effort and winning personality. What type of attribution has Sven made?

 

Regarding stereotypes, which of the following statements is FALSE

Studies describing gender differences in conformity suggest that women are ______ men to conform

Willem is a skilled pianist. He has recently started playing the violin. When an audience is present, Willem probably

According to Sternberg, the strongest relationships can be described as those with

In attribution theory, dispositional attributions are ______ and situational attributions are _____.

In Sternberg’s model of love, the desire to maintain the relationship through good times and bad times is called

______ play(s) a role in explaining why people obey immoral commands

Mischa believes she did well on her English exam because she is very intelligent but that she failed her Chemistry exam because her instructor is not very good. We may explain her beliefs in terms of

When Anne first met Jules, he had been suffering from insomnia and was a little short-tempered. Subsequently, when she was around Jules, she interpreted a lot of what he did as reflecting his hostile personality. This reflects the power of

Which of the following definitions best describes out-group negativism

 

1. What do we call the process by which we come to form an understanding of our social environment?

a) Social psychology

b) Social perception

c) Self-fulfilling prophecy

d) Stereotyping

e) Impression formation

2. When Ron goes out on first dates, he acts the part of a strong, silent type, disclosing few details about himself. Consequently, his dates probably perceive him as being

a) insecure.

b) stuck up.

c) mature.

d) shy.

e) poorly adjusted.

3. Impression formation concerns

a) our efforts to make a good impression on someone.

b) the process by which people form opinions of others.

c) the tendency to give first impressions too much emphasis.

d) the tendency to ignore first impressions.

e) the expectation that someone will behave the way you predict.

4. When John and Mary go on their first date, John reveals extensive personal information to Mary. What is the most likely result of John's self-disclosure?

a) It will help their relationship become stronger.

b) It will lead Mary to form a negative first impression of John.

c) It will lead Mary to form a positive first impression.

d) It will help strengthen Mary's stereotype about men.

e) It will have no effect on Mary's opinion or on their relationship.

5. Compared to people from the West, people in East Asian societies are predicted to do which of the following?

a) Disclose less about themselves

b) Disclose more about themselves

c) Have high regard for people who disclose personal information

d) Ask very personal questions when first meeting someone

e) Hold negative impressions of people who do not disclose personal information

6. On their first date, Angelo told Robyn detailed stories of being physically abused by his parents. As a result, Robyn will most likely

a) feel very comfortable because of Angelo's honesty.

b) be flattered that Angelo confided in her.

c) want to know even more on the next date.

d) see Angelo as a sensitive and trustworthy individual.

e) feel that Angelo is insecure and poorly adjusted.

7. A mental image or representation that a person uses to understand his or her social environment is called a

a) situational attribution.

b) fundamental attribution error.

c) dispositional attribution.

d) social schema.

e) self-fulfilling prophecy.

8. When Anne first met Jules, he had been suffering from insomnia and was a little short-tempered. Subsequently, when she was around Jules, she interpreted a lot of what he did as reflecting his hostile personality. This reflects the power of

a) social schemas.

b) stereotyping.

c) discrimination.

d) cognitive dissonance.

e) self-fulfilling prophecies.

9. Stereotypes are

a) examples of deviant cognitive processing.

b) considered normal cognitive processing.

c) always inaccurate.

d) always negative.

e) always positive.

10. Angela believes that all older people are forgetful. Angela is demonstrating

a) a self-fulfilling prophecy.

b) the fundamental attribution error.

c) cognitive dissonance.

d) stereotyping.

e) a dispositional cause.

11. Randy believes that all people from Cropilia are aggressive. When he meets a Cropilian, he acts more aggressive himself. The Cropilian responds with aggressive behavior, which Randy takes as a confirmation of his belief in their aggressiveness. This best describes

a) cultural stereotyping.

b) a self-serving attribution.

c) the fundamental attribution error.

d) cognitive dissonance.

e) a self-fulfilling prophecy.

12. Stereotypes are best described as

a) inefficient and not necessarily accurate.

b) efficient and accurate.

c) inefficient and accurate.

d) efficient and not necessarily accurate.

e) negative and inefficient.

13. Europeans "justified" their colonial rule in Africa based on the stereotype that Blacks were

a) unable to govern themselves.

b) lazy.

c) dishonest.

d) aggressive.

e) undisciplined.

14. Explanations formed about causes of behavior or events are called

a) stereotypes.

b) attributions.

c) social schemas.

d) attitudes.

e) rationalizations.

15. Paul believes his mother yelled at him because she had a headache. Paul has made a(n)

a) attitude.

b) rationalization.

c) stereotype.

d) attribution.

e) schema.

16. Explaining behavior as the result of someone's internal factors, such as personality, is what type of attribution?

a) External

b) Situational

c) Contextual

d) Dispositional

e) Environmental

17. In attribution theory, dispositional attributions are ________ and situational attributions are ________.

a) accurate; inaccurate

b) efficient; inefficient

c) inefficient; efficient

d) external; internal

e) internal; external

18. A group of students discusses their grades on their first psychology exam. Which student, if any, is making a dispositional attribution?

a) Alana, who says, "I didn't do very well because there was a car alarm blaring every few minutes last night."

b) Glenn, who says, "I did well because the test was really easy."

c) Claire, who says, "The professor thinks I'm cute, so he graded my essays easy."

d) Donal, who says, "My lucky rabbit's foot worked!"

e) Rita, who says, "I aced this test because I took great notes in class."

19. Joylin assumes her husband kicked the dog because the dog had just bitten him. Joylin is making what sort of attribution?

a) Dispositional

b) Personal

c) Internal

d) Situational

e) Cognitive

20. The self-defense explanation of a crime essentially involves convincing the jury to make what sort of attribution about the defendant's actions?

a) Situational

b) Dispositional

c) Personal

d) Cognitive

e) Internal

21. Which of the following terms is most closely related to a dispositional attribution?

a) External

b) Environmental

c) Internal

d) Situational

e) Self-serving

22. Tony made a situational attribution when he said,

a) "I cut my finger because I've always been clumsy with knives."

b) "I lost my keys because I'm not organized."

c) "I missed my dental appointment because I didn't really want to go, so I conveniently forgot."

d) "I ran out of cash because I spent too much at the music store."

e) "I didn't finish my homework because there was a noisy party upstairs."

23. Which of the following statements is true about attributions?

a) The fundamental attribution error accounts for people's tendency to take credit for their successes by explaining away their failures.

b) The actor-observer effect is the tendency to attribute others' behavior to situational causes, while attributing our own behavior to personal reasons.

c) People are not prone to the fundamental attribution error when explaining their own behavior.

d) The self-serving bias is more widespread in collectivist cultures than in individualistic cultures.

e) In the fundamental attribution error, people overemphasize external causes when explaining others' behavior.

24. The fundamental attribution error involves

a) taking credit for your own good behavior.

b) taking the blame for your own bad behavior.

c) overemphasizing internal factors when explaining the behavior of others.

d) overemphasizing situational factors when explaining the behavior of others.

e) overemphasizing internal factors when explaining personal successes and situational factors when explaining personal failures.

25. Which of the following individuals is making the fundamental attribution error?

a) Alex, who failed his psychology test and passed his biology test and says that his psychology professor made an unfair test, and that he studied hard for the biology test

b) Bernard, who asks a girl in his class for a date, and she responds in a curt, rude manner and he says that she's stuck-up, but what he doesn't realize is that the girl's mother just died

c) Courtney and her friend, who just received grades for their first English composition, on which they both earned A's and Courtney says that she did well because the teacher likes her and her friend did well because she is a talented writer.

d) Dimitria, who, whenever she makes a sale, boasts about her sales skills, but when she fails to make one, she has an excuse for why it did not work out

e) Evaline, who tries to borrow Lynn's notes and when Lynn says "No," thinks, "She must have had a bad experience when someone else borrowed her notes."

26. Jahrul's instructor was very rude the first day of class. Jahrul assumed the instructor was a rude woman. He did not know that she had woken up late, had had a car accident on the way to work, and had been locked out of her office. Jahrul is demonstrating

a) the fundamental attribution error.

b) a self-serving bias.

c) cognitive dissonance.

d) the actor-observer effect.

e) the elaboration likelihood model.

27. Compared to people in collectivist cultures, people in individualistic cultures

a) are less prone to make the fundamental attribution error.

b) have a greater tendency to make situational attributions for the behavior of others.

c) are more likely to commit the fundamental attribution error.

d) emphasize external causes of behavior to explain the behavior of others.

e) rely little on dispositional causes in making attributions.

28. A researcher compares cross-cultural differences in the fundamental attribution error by showing a film of someone stealing and then asking participants to explain why the person stole. Participants from East Asian cultures are most likely to make which attribution?

a) The thief is too lazy to earn money to avoid having to steal.

b) The thief is not intelligent.

c) The thief was born evil.

d) The thief lacks morality.

e) The thief was raised in a family that condoned stealing when money was not available for basic needs.

29. Compared to someone from Japan, someone from Canada is

a) more likely to rely on situational attributions to explain the behavior of others.

b) more likely to make the fundamental attribution error.

c) less likely to make the fundamental attribution error.

d) more likely to rely on external attributions to explain the behavior of others.

e) less likely to rely on internal attributions to explain the behavior of others.

30. The actor-observer effect occurs when people explain

a) their own behavior by making a dispositional attribution.

b) the behavior of others by making a situational attribution.

c) their own behavior and the behavior of others by making a situational attribution.

d) their own behavior by making a situational attribution and the behavior of others by making a dispositional attribution.

e) their own behavior by making a dispositional attribution and the behavior of others by making a situational attribution.

31. When people explain their own behavior by making a situational attribution and the behavior of others by making a dispositional attribution it is called

a) stereotyping.

b) the fundamental attribution error.

c) a self-serving bias.

d) a self-fulfilling prophecy.

e) the actor-observer effect.

32. Heika was passed over for a promotion at work, as was his colleague Lucille. Heika is sure that the boss simply does not like him but that Lucille really is too poor a worker to merit a promotion. This is a case of

a) the fundamental attribution error.

b) the actor-observer effect.

c) a self-fulfilling prophecy.

d) cognitive dissonance.

e) stereotyping.

33. When people make dispositional attributions for their successes and make situational attributions for their failures, they are demonstrating

a) the fundamental attribution error.

b) the actor-observer effect.

c) a self-serving bias.

d) a self-fulfilling prophecy.

e) the elaboration likelihood model.

34. Mischa believes that she did well on her English exam because she is very intelligent but that she failed her chemistry exam because her instructor is not very good. She is demonstrating

a) the fundamental attribution error.

b) reciprocity.

c) a self-fulfilling prophecy.

d) the actor-observer effect.

e) a self-serving bias.

35. Compared to people from collectivist cultures, people from individualistic cultures are

a) less likely to make the fundamental attribution error.

b) more likely to make situational attributions when explaining the behavior of others.

c) less likely to show a self-serving bias.

d) more likely to show a self-serving bias.

e) more likely to attribute success to luck.

36. Which of the following statements is true regarding cross-cultural differences in cognitive biases?

a) People from individualistic cultures are more prone to make the fundamental attribution error and less prone to demonstrate a self-serving bias than are people from collectivist cultures.

b) People from collectivist cultures are more prone to make the fundamental attribution error and less prone to demonstrate a self-serving bias than are people from individualistic cultures.

c) People from individualistic cultures are less prone to make the fundamental attribution error and more prone to demonstrate a self-serving bias than are people from collectivist cultures.

d) People from collectivist cultures are less prone to make the fundamental attribution error and more prone to demonstrate a self-serving bias than are people from individualistic cultures.

e) People from individualistic cultures are more prone to demonstrate a self-serving bias and to the fundamental attribution error than are people from collectivist cultures.

37. Which of the following bolsters self-esteem?

a) The self-serving bias

b) The fundamental attribution error

c) The actor-observer effect

d) The matching hypothesis

e) The self-fulfilling prophecy

38. A judgment of either liking or disliking something or someone is a(n)

a) attitude.

b) attribution.

c) stereotype.

d) emotion.

e) bias.

39. Attitudes consist of which components?

a) Emotions, cognitions, and expectations

b) Emotions, behaviors, and cognitions

c) Cognitions, expectations, and behaviors

d) Cognitions, emotions, and expectations

e) Behaviors, expectations, and cognitions

40. The beliefs involved in an attitude are referred to as

a) emotions.

b) cognitions.

c) behaviors.

d) attributions.

e) dispositions.

41. "Ira has a bad attitude when it comes to Latin," the teacher told his father. "He comes into class and sits in the back reading comic books." The teacher was referring to which component of Ira's attitude?

a) Actual

b) Behavioral

c) Cognitive

d) Emotional

e) Practical

42. Of the following people with attitudes toward hybrid vehicles, which one demonstrates the behavioral component of attitudes?

a) Tony, who says, "Hybrid vehicles cost more than gas vehicles, so they don't save you any money."

b) Grant, who purchases a Toyota hybrid car with his graduation money

c) Jennifer, who gets angry every time she sees someone driving a big SUV

d) Carmella, who says, "I think the government should give bigger tax credits to people who purchase hybrid vehicles."

e) Paulie, who, after looking at a hybrid on a car lot, says, "It's nice, but I worry about its acceleration."

43. How much you like or dislike your psychology professor denotes the ________ component of your attitude toward her, whereas ________ denotes the behavioral component of your attitude.

a) cognitive; how much you look forward to class

b) emotional; what you belief to be her educational background

c) cognitive; your estimate of her expertise

d) emotional; whether or not you pay attention in class

e) cognitive; how much you volunteer in class

44. Christine does not like country music. This feeling reflects which component of her attitude toward country music?

a) Attributional

b) Cognitive

c) Emotional

d) Behavioral

e) Inclinational

45. Marcel protests in front of stores that sell animal furs. This reflects which component of his attitude toward animal furs?

a) Attributional

b) Schematic

c) Emotional

d) Cognitive

e) Behavioral

46. Mehmet thinks that if everybody were a vegetarian, the world would be better off. This reflects which component of Mehmet's attitude?

a) Behavioral

b) Emotional

c) Cognitive

d) Attributional

e) Schematic

47. Attitude research with twins reared apart has revealed

a) significant shared attitudes that cannot be explained by shared environments.

b) almost no similarities in attitudes.

c) similarities in attitudes that reflect shared environments.

d) completely identical attitudes.

e) that people inherit genes for particular attitudes.

48. Which of the following statements is true about the role of heredity in attitudes?

a) Genes play almost no role in developing attitudes.

b) Genes are directly responsible for developing attitudes.

c) Genes account for similarities in attitudes, but not for differences.

d) Genes contribute to factors such as intelligence and temperament that affect the development of attitudes.

e) Genes account for differences in attitudes, but not for similarities.

49. People's behaviors do not always match their attitudes because of

a) the fundamental attribution error.

b) the self-serving bias.

c) the actor-observer effect.

d) stereotyping.

e) situational constraints.

50. The relationship between attitudes and behavior is best described as

a) nearly perfect.

b) almost nonexistent.

c) modest.

d) unclear.

e) significant.

51. According to the _______, people are more likely to evaluate a persuasive message carefully when their motivational state is high and when they have the ability or knowledge to evaluate the information.

a) fundamental error of attribution

b) actor-observer discrepancy statement

c) elaboration likelihood model

d) dissonance theory of cognition

e) general adaptation syndrome

52. People are more likely to carefully evaluate a persuasive message when

a) it is consistent with what they already believe.

b) it goes against what they already believe.

c) it concerns something they are ignorant about.

d) they are distracted and the message is not particularly meaningful.

e) they are highly motivated and have the skills or knowledge to evaluate the message.

53. Gina took the peripheral route to persuasion when she

a) signed a petition against taking down an old building that she considers a classic.

b) bought a cell phone just because it was advertised by her favorite rock star.

c) agreed to volunteer and work as a tutor in an elementary school because she loves working with kids.

d) purchased a computer after doing much research online to find the one that had the features she needed.

e) registered for an exercise class because she had put on a few pounds over the winter break.

54. People use a central route of processing information when

a) elaboration likelihood is high.

b) cognitive dissonance is high.

c) attribution strength is high.

d) motivation is low.

e) they lack evaluation skills.

55. According to the elaboration likelihood model, when elaboration likelihood is low, people

a) use a peripheral route of processing information.

b) use a central route of processing information.

c) ignore persuasive messages.

d) focus on aspects of the persuasive message that are consistent with prior beliefs.

e) focus on the content of the message.

56. Careful evaluation of the content of a message is accomplished via which route of processing?

a) Attributional

b) Peripheral

c) Central

d) Dissonant

e) Relational

57. A person is likely to make use of a peripheral route of information processing when

a) elaboration likelihood is low.

b) cognitive dissonance is high.

c) attribution strength is high.

d) motivation is high.

e) special skills or knowledge are needed to evaluate the message.

58. Erika is not registered to vote and lives with her parents. Her friend takes her to a debate about property taxes between two people running for City Council. Erika would probably use which form of processing?

a) Dissonance

b) Central

c) Peripheral

d) Attributional

e) Reciprocal

59. Features of a communicator attempting to deliver a persuasive message are called

a) source variables.

b) attribution variables.

c) message variables.

d) recipient variables.

e) initiating variables.

60. A communicator will most likely be perceived as credible if he or she is

a) attractive.

b) self-confident.

c) similar to the audience.

d) personable.

e) trustworthy.

61. A popular diet company hires a physician to advertise its weight-loss program. Which source variable is the company trying to influence?

a) Likeability

b) Similarity

c) Credibility

d) Originality

e) Attractiveness

62. Using models to sell automobiles most directly addresses which aspect of the source?

a) Credibility

b) Likeability

c) Authenticity

d) Similarity

e) Trustworthiness

63. Which of the following is true regarding persuasive appeals?

a) Messages that are aligned with the perceived interests of the communicator tend to be perceived as more credible.

b) Those of low intelligence or low self-confidence are generally harder to persuade.

c) People in a bad mood tend to be more receptive to persuasive messages than those in a good mood.

d) It does not matter how often a message is repeated, the more people are exposed to it, the more favorably they evaluate it.

e) Communicators who are similar to the audience are perceived more favorably than those who are dissimilar.

64. In persuasion, presenting both sides of an argument is

a) ineffective because it tends to confuse people.

b) ineffective because it seems ambivalent.

c) ineffective with an unknowledgeable audience but effective with a knowledgeable one.

d) almost always effective.

e) effective only when the counter-argument is refuted.

65. Messages are more credible when they

a) reflect the interests of the communicator.

b) go against the interests of the communicator.

c) are irrelevant to the interests of the communicator.

d) are not accompanied by relevant counter-arguments.

e) are not repeated often.

66. A community organization plans to sponsor a talk arguing against increased military spending. Other things being equal, which of the following should they contract to give the talk?

a) An avowed pacifist

b) A civilian

c) A person who actively avoided military service

d) A military officer

e) A person with mixed views on the subject

67. How does the recipient's mood affect persuasion?

a) A good mood makes people more resistant to persuasive messages.

b) A good mood has no effect on persuasive messages.

c) A good mood makes people more receptive to persuasive messages.

d) A good mood makes it easier to ignore persuasive messages.

e) A good mood leads to low elaboration likelihood.

68. Compared to people of higher intelligence, people of lower intelligence are generally

a) incapable of processing persuasive messages.

b) very difficult to persuade.

c) just as easy to persuade.

d) difficult to persuade if the message is complicated.

e) easier to persuade.

69. Three recipient variables that have an influence on persuasion are mood, intelligence, and

a) physical attractiveness.

b) confidence.

c) agreeableness.

d) popularity.

e) risk taking.

70. Summarize the process of making attributions, including the types of biases that influence attributions.

71. Describe the elaboration likelihood model.

72. Research evidence suggests that the major determinant of initial attraction is

a) perceived similarities.

b) novelty.

c) physical attractiveness.

d) internal characteristics.

e) proximity.

73. People are generally attracted to people who

a) are similar to them in personality.

b) are their polar opposites in attitudes.

c) do not live close by.

d) are less attractive than they are.

e) are not interested in them.

74. Similarity is most important in a relationship because it

a) minimizes controversy.

b) gives people something to talk about.

c) provides for validation of each person's self-concept.

d) helps the couple meet other, similar couples.

e) reflects the inner qualities of each individual.

75. Shelly has just signed up for an online dating service. She is tested on the Big Five personality traits and is presented with the results. Then she is asked to specify where on the five factors she sees her ideal match. What is she likely to say?

a) She will want someone who matches her scores on all five dimensions.

b) She will want someone who is more extraverted and agreeable but less neurotic, conscientious, or open.

c) She will want someone who is more conscientious and open but less neurotic, extraverted, or agreeable.

d) She will want someone who scored lower than she did on all dimensions.

e) She will want someone who outscored her on all dimensions except neuroticism.

76. In accounting for attraction, men place more emphasis than women on

a) physical appearance.

b) intelligence.

c) attitude similarity.

d) income.

e) education.

77. The one exception to the "what is beautiful is also good" stereotype is that compared to less attractive peers, attractive people are generally seen as

a) less intelligent.

b) less popular.

c) psychologically less well adjusted.

d) vain and immodest.

e) more socially awkward.

78. Faces are rated as more attractive when they have which of the following features?

a) Eyes that are close together

b) Thick cheeks

c) A small nose

d) A thin lower lip

e) A large chin

79. Which of the following statements is true about the role of physical appearance in attraction?

a) There is much variation in the characteristics considered ideal for the female face.

b) People who wear glasses tend to be perceived as less attractive, intelligent, honest, and reliable than people who wear contact lenses or no glasses.

c) Being tall pays off; height is related to higher incomes.

d) Large eyes and lips add to the "sexiness" of males more than to that of females.

e) The female ideal is associated with thinness in every society.

80. The matching hypothesis predicts that Sandra will look for a partner who

a) lives near her apartment.

b) is similar to her in physical attractiveness.

c) regularly compliments her.

d) practices the same religion that she does.

e) has about the same IQ as she does.

81. Making friends with neighbors supports which influence on attraction?

a) Matching

b) Reciprocity

c) Attractiveness

d) Similarity

e) Proximity

82. Carlotta has recently befriended Phyllis, who has been driving Carlotta's children to day care. The new friendship is most likely based on

a) matching.

b) proximity.

c) similarity.

d) indebtedness.

e) reciprocity.

83. Which of the following statements regarding the role of reciprocity in relationships is true?

a) Restaurant patrons resent waitresses who attempt to curry favor with them in order to get a generous tip.

b) The mere fact that someone does you a favor does not mean you are likely to be att

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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 12 complete solutions correct answers A+ work More than 8 different versions Chapter 12 Question 1 Which subfield of psychology is concerned with how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by interactions with others? Question 2 Attitudes may be described as comprising which components? Question 3 The tendency for people to reduce their efforts when working as part of a group is called Question 4 The “cover story” in the famous obedience research presented in the text was that the researcher was investigating Question 5 Research on attraction suggests that you will be most attracted to someone who is Question 6 Discrimination represents which attitudinal component of prejudice? Question 7 Dr. Vanchella suspects that one of her college students does not have any money for food. She arranges for money to be put on the student’s meal card without telling the student. Which term best describes Vanchella’s motive? Question 8 In groupthink, group members emphasize ______ over thoughtful consideration of the issues. Question 9 A salesperson used a persuasive technique that was not based on the principle of compliance. Which technique was used? Question 10 All but which of the following is identified in the text as a factor influencing conformity? Question 11 Which of the following individuals is making the fundamental attribution error? Question 12 Recent research on the actor¬observer effect suggests that Question 13 In the elaboration likelihood model, peripheral is to ______ as central is to ______. Question 14 People with a high need for consistency are more likely to be susceptible to which compliance technique? Question 15 Compared to people from collectivist cultures, people from individualistic cultures are Question 16 Angela believes that people from Stovenia are basically dishonest. Angela is demonstrating Question 17 The self¬defense explanation of a crime essentially involves convincing the jury to make what sort of attribution about the defendant’s actions? Question 18 Jamal is asked to describe himself. Which of Jamal’s statements represents his social identity? Question 19 JoAnne goes to the local electronics store to purchase a $30 DVD player that was advertised in the paper. Upon arriving, the salesperson tells her that they have just run out and offers to show JoAnne some other models. JoAnne ends up purchasing a $150 DVD player. JoAnne has been the victim of which technique of persuasion? Question 20 A social psychological explanation of the poor decisions of President Kennedy’s administration in the Bay of Pigs incident is best described by which principle? Question 1 Making friends with neighbors supports which influence on attraction? Question 2 In attribution theory, dispositional attributions are ______ and situational attributions are _____. Question 3 Jamal is asked to describe himself. Which of Jamal’s statements represents his social identity? Question 4 In groupthink, group members emphasize ______ over thoughtful consideration of the issues. Question 5 Recent research on the actor¬observer effect suggests that Question 6 Jahrul’s instructor was very rude the first day of class. Jahrul assumed the instructor was a rude woman. He did not know that she had woken up late, had a car accident on the way to work, and had been locked out of her office. Jahrul is demonstrating Question 7 The fundamental attribution error, which helps explain how cognitive biases affect attributions, involves Question 8 Regarding Milgram’s research on obedience, which of the following statements is FALSE? Question 9 Compared to people of higher intelligence, people of lower intelligence are generally Question 10 Of the following smokers, which one is choosing the route of rationalization to deal with the dissonance between their smoking behavior and their belief that smoking is unhealthy? Question 11 Janice leads a team of 20 employees. If Janice wants to reduce the chances of social loafing in her team, she should do all but which of the following? Question 12 Regarding research on physical attractiveness, which of the following statements is FALSE? Question 13 Willem is a skilled pianist. He has recently started playing the violin. When an audience is present, Willem probably Question 14 Miguel is asked to describe himself. Which of Miguel’s statements represents his personal identity? Question 15 From the perspective of the field of psychology, love is Question 16 Which of the following is the best definition of social facilitation? Question 17 Which recipient variables have an influence on persuasion? Question 18 According to _______, people are more likely to carefully evaluate a persuasive message when their motivational state is high and when they have the ability or knowledge to evaluate the information. Question 19 ______ is the process by which we come to form an understanding of our social environment. Question 20 When Anne first met Jules, he had been suffering from insomnia and was a little shorttempered. Subsequently, when she was around Jules, she interpreted a lot of what he did as reflecting his hostile personality. This reflects the power of Question 1 Recent research on the actor¬observer effect suggests that Question 2 ______ is the process by which we come to form an understanding of our social environment. Question 3 Which of the following individuals is making the fundamental attribution error? Question 4 In the elaboration likelihood model, peripheral is to ______ as central is to ______. Question 5 Which of the following is the best definition of obedience? Question 6 In persuasion, presenting both sides of an argument is Question 7 First impressions tend to become lasting impressions in part because of the role of Question 8 Regarding research evidence on aggression, which of the following statements is FALSE? Question 9 The argument that “everyone’s doing it” may help explain why people obey immoral commands. This argument may be explained by the principle of Question 10 Jamal is asked to describe himself. Which of Jamal’s statements represents his social identity? Question 11 Which researcher(s) is/are associated with the study of bystander intervention? Question 12 All of the following make attitudes more likely to influence behavior EXCEPT Question 13 Of the following people with attitudes toward hybrid vehicles, which one best describes the behavioral component of attitudes? Question 14 Regarding research evidence on aggression, which of the following statements is FALSE? Question 15 Willem is a skilled pianist. He has recently started playing the violin. When an audience is present, Willem probably Question 16 The tendency for people to reduce their efforts when working as part of a group is called Question 17 In attribution theory, dispositional attributions are ______ and situational attributions are _____. Question 18 Making friends with neighbors supports which influence on attraction? Question 19 Discrimination represents which attitudinal component of prejudice? Question 20 Which of the following statements regarding prejudice is FALSE? Question 1 According to _______, people are more likely to carefully evaluate a persuasive message when their motivational state is high and when they have the ability or knowledge to evaluate the information. Question 2 A researcher compares cross-¬cultural differences in the fundamental attribution error by showing a film of someone stealing and then asking participants to explain why the person stole. Participants from East Asian cultures are most likely to make which attribution? Question 3 The failure of witnesses to help Kitty Genovese when she was viciously attacked may have been due to the tendency to believe that others would act and so they wouldn’t need to. This explanation is based on the principle of _________. Question 4 ______ play(s) a role in explaining why people obey immoral commands. Question 5 Jahrul’s instructor was very rude the first day of class. Jahrul assumed the instructor was a rude woman. He did not know that she had woken up late, had a car accident on the way to work, and had been locked out of her office. Jahrul is demonstrating Question 6 JoAnne goes to the local electronics store to purchase a $30 DVD player that was advertised in the paper. Upon arriving, the salesperson tells her that they have just run out and offers to show JoAnne some other models. JoAnne ends up purchasing a $150 DVD player. JoAnne has been the victim of which technique of persuasion? Question 7 Personal identity is to ______ as social identity is to ______. Question 8 According to the text, one of the most common ways to reduce cognitive dissonance is to Question 9 When people explain their own behavior by making a situational attribution and the behavior of others by making a dispositional attribution it is called Question 10 Contemporary theorists are least likely to choose which factor to explain human aggression? Question 11 Regarding attributions, which of the following statements is FALSE? Question 12 Discrimination represents which attitudinal component of prejudice? Question 13 A salesperson used a persuasive technique that was not based on the principle of compliance. Which technique was used? Question 14 People with a high need for consistency are more likely to be susceptible to which compliance technique? Question 15 A person’s individual identity is best described as her/his Question 16 A group of psychologists discuss the causes of aggression. Which psychologist speaks from a sociocultural perspective? Question 17 The contact hypothesis suggests that prejudice Question 18 Regarding attitudes, which of the following statements is FALSE? Question 19 Regarding research evidence on aggression, which of the following statements is FALSE? Question 20 Which researcher conducted an influential study on conformity? Question 1 Results of attitude research with twins has revealed Question 2 Other factors being equal, which person is likely to identify more strongly with their personal identity than their social identity? Question 3 The triangular model of love is described by each of the following components the triangular theory of love EXCEPT Question 4 Features of a communicator attempting to deliver a persuasive message are called Question 5 When people explain their own behavior by making a situational attribution and the behavior of others by making a dispositional attribution it is called Selected Answer: b. the actor¬observer effect. Question 6 In order for intergroup contact to have a desirable effect on prejudice and intergroup tension, all but which of the following conditions are necessary? Question 7 Regarding Milgram’s research on obedience, which of the following statements is FALSE? Question 8 Angela believes that people from Stovenia are basically dishonest. Angela is demonstrating Question 9 The contact hypothesis suggests that prejudice Question 10 The relationship between attitudes and behavior is best described as Question 11 What is the primary reason that people’s behaviors do not always match their attitudes? Question 12 Which personality type has been found to be associated with the development of prejudice? Question 13 Compared to people of higher intelligence, people of lower intelligence are generally Question 14 Heika and Lucille were both passed over for a promotion at work. Heika is sure that the boss does not like him, but he believes that Lucille was passed over because she is really a poor worker. His attribution of the cause of the event can be explained in terms of Question 15 Studies describing gender differences in conformity suggest that women are ______ men to conform Question 16 People use a central route of processing information when Question 17 First impressions tend to become lasting impressions in part because of the role of Question 18 Regarding attitudes, which of the following statements is FALSE? Question 19 Compared to a person from a collectivist culture, a person from an ...

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