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Liberty University Phil201 Study Guide: Lesson 22

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Liberty University Phil201 Study Guide: Lesson 22

Consequentialism

Lesson Overview:

 

In this lesson, we explore the major ethical theories. The first of these is consequentialism. Consequentialism is the view that says the right thing to do is that which produces the best consequences. According to this view, ethics is about achieving good results and therefore an action is judged by the results it produces. For example, lying is wrong if it produces bad results, but is right if it produces good results. We will examine 2 consequentialistic theories in the chapter. The first, egoism, says an action is right if it produces the best consequences for me. The second, utilitarianism, says an action is right if produces the best consequences for all concerned.

 

Tasks:

 

Read Chapters 4 and 5 of Ethics: Approaching Moral Decisions, “Ethical Egoism” and “Utilitarianism.” As you do, consider the following questions and points:

 

·         List some modern examples of egoism.

·         Explain the leap from psychological fact to ethical ought in psychological egoism.

·         Problems with psychological egoism.

·         Butler’s argument against psychological egoism.

·         Contrast the hedonic paradox with true self-love.

·         Know the distinction between psychological egoism and ethical egoism.

·         Explain Holmes’s argument for why egoism cannot succeed as a viable ethical theory: Why does individual egoism reduce to universal egoism? Why would universal egoism collapse into anarchy?

·         Explain Holmes’s 4 conclusions concerning ethical egoism.

·         List 2 reasons utilitarianism is probably the most popular ethical theory.

·         Explain Holmes’s non-consequential argument against utilitarianism.

·         Know the distinction between Bentham and Mill.

·         What are the problems with quantifying pleasure?

·         Explain the “simplified” problem of distributive justice.

·         Explain the inherent conflict between utilitarian distributive justice and equal rights.

·         What does the empiricism that supports utilitarianism end up saying about the value of persons?

·         How does the concept of moral integrity criticize utilitarianism?

·         Contrast hypothetical and categorical imperatives.

 

 

 

Terms:

 

Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts:

 

·         Egoism

·         Hedonistic Egoism

·         Psychological Egoism

·         Hedonic Paradox

·         Ethical Egoism

·         Individual Egoism

·         Universal Egoism

·         Utilitarianism

·         Hedonic Calculus

·         Distributive Justice

·         Moral Integrity

·         Hypothetical Imperative

·         Categorical Imperative

 

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[Solved] Liberty University Phil201 Study Guide: Lesson 22

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LIBERTY UNIVERSITY PHIL201 STUDY GUIDE: LESSON 22 Consequentialism Lesson Overview: In this lesson, we explore the major ethical theories. The first of these is consequentialism. Consequentialism is the view that says the right thing to do is that which produces the best consequences. According to this view, ethics is about achieving good results and therefore an action is judged by the results it produces. For example, lying is wrong if it produces bad results, but is right if it produces good results. We will examine 2 consequentialistic theories in the chapter. The first, egoism, says an action is right if it produces the best consequence...
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