Am looking at a PTSD as my topic and specialization. All resources need to be peer reviewed and scholarly. The four questions that need to be answered within this assignment are included below as well as other recources given to assist with completion. Thank you.
Please read the required examination answer format and process for submitting your answers. Each question/answer must
conform to the eight step process identified in this week's assignment criteria. Each question addresses a different aspect of
doctoral scholarship and can be generalized to any specialty. However, you will be integrating the literature of your specialty
within the generalized framework required by the questions.
CMP Sample Title Page
Required Examination Format:
Use APA format when responding to each question. Each Comprehensive written exam answer
should be formatted as follows:
1. Cover page or Title page.
2. Write the QUESTION number, centered, the actual question single spaced and in italics, left
justified, and located 4 spaces below.
3. On the next page begin the response, double-spaced and with the first line indented 5 spaces.
Northcentral University 6/17/15, 8:48 AM
https://my.ncu.edu/syllabus/syllabus?learnerCourseId=445807 Page 12 of 14
Each response (excluding references) should be within the ten to fifteen page range (no more no
less). Please note that if the minimum page requirement of 10 pages is not met for each question, the
question will not be graded.
4. Provide a separate reference page for the answer. Individual References should be single spaced
and double spaced between references using the hanging indent.
5. Follow the sequence outlined in 2-4 for each essay question and response.
6. Combine all four essays into one document.
7. Upload your assignment using the Upload Assignment button below.
Submit all four questions under cover of a title page that follows the format of the sample title page in
Comprehensive Doctoral Review Examination
Presented in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Business Administration (or Philosophy)
Criminal Justice Administration
In research, theory refers to defined or proposed ways through which researchers are able to make sense of concepts or situations. It is through a theory that researchers are able to present reliable solutions to a problem (Udo-Akang, 2012). Theory can be viewed as a generalization that is used to explain a phenomenon in line with the reasons why it occurs and how it occurs. General statements that are used to explain the cause or effect of a phenomenon are based on specific theoretical frameworks (Stam, 2010). A theory is a powerful tool through which researchers connect events and observations into a single unified web. The relationship among the statements of a theory defines the power of the theory as a basis upon which problems are solved and phenomena are understood (Harlow, 2009). A theory plays an important function in explaining, describing, controlling or predicting phenomena in different or divergent contexts (Udo-Akang, 2012).
The interactions of the various variables of phenomena constitute a theoretical framework. Theory can also be viewed as a system or a group of laws or rules and assumptions that are used to explain the implications of phenomena (Zahra, & Newey, 2009). Theories are used to make inferences or conclusions on a specific issue. The generalizations that are presented within theoretical frameworks often indicate new research observations (Wacker, 1998). These observations are constituted within a theory if they can be tested through scientific inquiry and if they are applicable in predicting or explaining certain phenomena. When knowledge is organized in a systematic manner, it also becomes and constitutes a theory. Theories are specifically applied to solve problems in the real world (Stam, 2010).
Credible or reliable research should be grounded on a specific theory or theories. This means that research should be informed and guided by theoretical views. Research findings can therefore be used to describe or explain a theory or be used to come up with new theories (Udo-Akang, 2012). There are two main types of theories upon which researches are grounded. These are philosophical theories and scientific theories. Philosophical theories are those whose subject matter or what they postulate is based on ideas rather than empirical research data (Harlow, 2009). The truth behind philosophical theories does not require an empirical research process or inquiry in order to be proven. Ethical theories and frameworks are examples of philosophical theories (Corley & Gioia, 2011).
Scientific theory refers to explanations or descriptions of a phenomenon that are based on empirical data or facts. Scientific theories are therefore those that have been proven through observations, surveys or experiments (Zahra, & Newey, 2009). The predictions of a scientific theory must be predictable, accurate and consistent, regardless of the discipline of study or research. The evidence that supports scientific theory is strong because it can be authenticated (Udo-Akang, 2012). Scientific theories are used to define and explain a wide range of concepts, issues and phenomena. The diversity of the concepts that are described by a scientific theory is used to define its level of complexity (Harlow, 2009). As scientific knowledge expands, the accuracy of scientific theory improves. This is due to the role of research in improving theoretical frameworks and making them more evidence based (Wacker, 1998). The real life problems that scientific theory is used to solve include the management or treatment of illnesses and developing new and improved technologies to solve problems with efficiency.
Various concepts are related to theory and its application in research processes. These concepts include model, paradigm, concept and hypothesis. Even though these concepts are related to theory, they can be distinguished from both philosophical and scientific theories (Stam, 2010). A model refers to the tool that is applied in the process of constructing a theory. A model is often presented graphically or in a written format, and it is used to represent the components of a theory or its entirety. Models are not used to explain the components of a theory. Instead, they act as a method or approach through which researchers can explore a theory (Colquitt & Zapata-Phelan, 2007). Models are effectively used to illustrate a theory and its constituent components. Examples of models that are used to explore theories include molecular models and structural models (Gelso, 2006).
A paradigm is a group or framework of worldviews or beliefs, which researchers use to define the boundaries, methods and values upon which their research processes are based (Udo-Akang, 2012). The approach through which a research topic is tackled is therefore part of the research paradigm. Researchers use paradigms to distinguish between what is important and warrants scientific inquiry from what is not important (Stam, 2010). In addition, paradigms allow researchers to determine and explain what they can possibly achieve during the research and what is impossible. In this sense, paradigms are the divergent views of a theory which are necessary to direct the research towards the end objective. (Colquitt & Zapata-Phelan, 2007).
A concept is a unit of a theory. It acts as a building block upon which the postulates of a theory are constructed. This means that concepts are used to come up with a theory or a theoretical framework (Stam, 2010). The manner in which researchers interpret, explain and describe a theory is based on its concepts. Theoretical concepts can also be viewed as the items within a research topic or concerns that are being investigated (Harlow, 2009). Researchers often compare a wide range of items in line with how they relate and how they affect each other. These items are described as the main concepts of the research (Zahra, & Newey, 2009). Concept is therefore a method that researchers use to describe a theory or theoretical work. Education is an example of a concept that is used to describe the learning experiences of an individual.
A hypothesis is an important element of a research process that describes the educated prediction or informed guess of the way the research subject is to be tested statistically . Researchers come up with hypotheses on the basis of their prior knowledge, experiences or observations (Wacker, 1998). A hypothesis differs from a theory because it is not yet proven or substantiated. Research hypotheses must be testable in order to become a theory. This is different from a theory which does not need to be tested in order to be applicable in understanding a phenomenon (Corley & Gioia, 2011). One or more hypotheses can be presented by researchers with a view of using scientific evidence to prove or substantiate them. This implies that a hypothesis is one of the components of a scientific theory (Stam, 2010).
From a review of the views of different scholars, it becomes apparent that there are different perspectives of what constitutes a scientific theory. For instance, one view of a theory is that it is made of different constructs. There are a wide range of constructs that make up a theory (Jeanjean & Ramirez, 2009). They include its delimitation, level of clarity, comprehensiveness, testability, heuristic value, descriptive ability, integration and explanatory ability. Research is used to refine a research and to achieve an understanding of its constituent constructs. This view of a theory is different from the views that describe a theory as a system of rules or a set of organized knowledge (Gelso, 2006).
The three main approaches of research to theory like realism, instrumentalism and reductionism are too be understood clearly if theory has to be applied in research.While the view of realism is that entities live and exist independently and beyond the scope of being perceived as they are real .(Jeanjean & Ramirez, 2009). This means that people should view the world on the basis of what research findings suggest and not their own subjective perceptions. This view of theory links theoretical frameworks with the importance of research processes in achieving an objective understanding of the world (Stam, 2010). The instrumentalism view of theory provides that theory acts as instruments through which people can understand the world. Instrumentalism further speaks of whether the theory is effective in explaining why a particular phenomena is used and how predicable it is . The reductionism view of theory indicates that the ability of an individual to learn about complex systems is based on an understanding of its units or constituent parts (Wacker, 1998).
Different scholarly perspectives and views on research theory reveal the significant relationship that exists between research and theory. For instance, theory is viewed as that which covers specific laws, brings about some form of enlightenment and is applicable in narrating or explaining phenomena (Ellis & Levy, 2008). The role of research findings in bringing about enlightenment or informing people about phenomena that was previously not understood demonstrates how research and theory are interrelated (Harlow, 2009). Both theory and research processes are used to educate people on methods, strategies and approaches through which they can mitigate or solve problems within the society (Leedy & Ormond, 2005). Because theory is a set of knowledge or rules, it is used to define the procedures and standards that would be applicable in implementing the most effective solutions to a problem (Ellis & Levy, 2008).
Research and theory have a special relationship. On one hand, theory is used to explain or to predict phenomena. On the other hand, research is used to gather, analyze and interpret data and information in order to improve the understanding of a phenomenon (Harlow, 2009). This means that both theory and research are important in enhancing people’s understanding of the world or society. New knowledge, which can be identified and proven, must be produced by a credible research. It is on the basis of this new knowledge that more understanding of phenomena is achieved (Ellis & Levy, 2008). Therefore, both research findings and theoretical perspectives can be used at the same time to satisfy the needs of achieving more understanding of happenings.
Research and theory have a symbiotic relationship, which makes them interdependent (Ng & Hase, 2008). This is depicted by the fact that researchers rely on theory to interpret and explain their findings and theory is proven through a research process (Harlow, 2009). The credibility and reliability of research findings and inferences are based on the ability of a researcher to test and prove theoretical ideas and postulates. Research process focuses on contributing or building upon the existing knowledge and theory (Ellis & Levy, 2008). This is achieved by adding new facts, which are important in expanding theory.
Researchers define the problem that their research findings aim at achieving before engaging in the actual research process (Weick, 1995). During the process of defining the research problem, the relationship between research and theory becomes apparent. This is because the research problem is related with the need to fill gaps in existing theory or providing more understanding on theoretical perspectives on a phenomenon (Gelso, 2006). This means that theory plays an important role in advancing research or scientific inquiry. Research processes that aim at verifying theory also reveal the relationship that exists between theory and research. Research process can also be used to refute or to explore a theory (Ellis & Levy, 2008).
Qualitative and quantitative research are the two main methods that researcher use in conducting scientific inquiry. In qualitative research, researchers seek to achieve in-depth understanding and interpretation of phenomena that is ...