[1.1] Make sure you understand (and can correctly identify examples related to] the relevant terminology. These terms include (i) population vs. sample; (ii) parameter vs. statistic; and (iii) margin of error (and how to apply it to determine the range of values – see p. 5). Questions like #11-14, #15-18, #23-26 (on pp. 8-9) are fair game. [IMPORTANT GENERAL NOTE/ADVICE: Each of the MyLabsPlus Chapter Review homework assignments provide you with the level/type of multiple-choice questions you can expect.] [1.2] Know the types of sampling methods (e.g., random, simple random, systematic, convenience, stratified, and cluster). See textbook page 15 for an excellent summary. Expect a few questions comparable to #23-38 (pp. 17-18). [1.3] Know the difference between an observational study versus an experimental one (and related terminology, like retrospective, cross-section, prospective/longitudinal, treatment group vs control group, and placebo). A number of the examples contained within Section 1.3 (pp. 19-27) and #9-20 (pp. 28-29) are comparable to what I have in mind for this section, except that your question(s) on these topics will be in multiple-choice format.] [1.5] Know the three ways of classifying data: (i) qualitative/categorical vs. quantitative; (ii) continuous vs. discrete; and (iii) the four levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio). The questions you will be asked will be fill-in-the-blank. See Example 1-3 pp. 40-43 for an illustration, as well as (on pp.43-44) #5-16, #17-28, and #29-40. [2.1] Make sure that you are easily able (with the aid of your calculator’s built-in fraction keys/functions) to do the following: (i) change back-and-forth between improper-fraction form and mixed-number form (#1-2 & #3-4 on p. 55); (ii) simplify/reduce fractions; and (iii) perform operations with fractions (ideally with the aid of your calculator). [2.2] Be skilled in (i) rounding decimal numbers to requested place values (for example, “round to the nearest hundredth”, “round to three decimal places”, “round to the nearest whole number”, etc.); and (ii) knowing how to use the bar notation to express a decimal in exact/unrounded form or in exact/unrounded form as a percentage [examples: % 3.8338.06 5 , % 45.4545.011 5 ]
[2.3] Be able to convert numbers back-and-forth between fraction form, decimal form, and percentage form (e.g., #1-16, p. 63). [2.4] Know how to convert a number between scientific notation and standard notation (e.g., Example 4-7 on pp. 65-67). [2.5] Know how to calculate absolute change and relative change (and indicate whether it is an ‘increase’ or a ‘decrease’) with an applied problem comparable to the stock-price example we did in class. [2.5] Given a percentage increase (such as a 2.75% increase to your annual salary) or a percentage decrease (such as a 30%-off sale), know how to solve related applied problems, such as “What would be your new salary?” or “What would be the sale price?” [3.1] Make sure you understand the various types of frequency tables/distributions, including grouped vs. ungrouped, relative (r.f.), cumulative (c.f.), and relative cumulative (r.c.f.). I’m planning on asking you a question very similar to Ex. 8 from the in-class worksheet we completed last Saturday, which is comparable to #15-16 on p. 88. [3.2] Given a two-way table (aka a contingency table), answer several questions about it to demonstrate your understanding of the information it provides. Example 1 on p. 91 is very similar to the difficulty level I have in mind, although I may possibly (?) omit the row/column/grand totals in the table I provide you… and leave those for you to calculate. [3.3-3.4] Given a graphical/pictorial representation of data (e.g., histogram, stem-and-leaf, frequency polygon, ogive, pie chart, and so on), be prepared to answer a question or two that will demonstrate your understanding of the picture/chart. [General advice for Chapters 1-3 OVERALL --- and for the ENTIRE rest of the course] At all times, your aim should be to develop real conceptual ‘understanding’ (i.e., resist the dangerous urge to blindly memorize!). Strive to cogently explain in your own words the purpose/role of each particular topic/skill and when it is applicable (and when it isn’t). In other words, in every one of your homework sessions, make sure you are always invoking your curiosity and then asking (and answering!) the following questions: where does this fit into the “big picture”? What is its purpose? What light does it shed on a given data set (i.e., what can we conclude)? If you were in a professional position in which you had to report this to information to the general public (or to a prospective client… or a patient… or before a judge/jury in a court of law… or to a group of elected legislators), what would you tell them? People who are able to do so are always in very high demand and short supply (in virtually every occupation) in the professional job market.